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Ramus, R., White, S., Frith, U., 2006 Weighing the evidence between competing theories of dyslexia link to pdf

We are pleased that our paper ‘The role of sensorimotor impairments in dyslexia: a multiple case study of dyslexic children’ has attracted comments by some of the prominent researchers in the field. Overall, our lack of support for a causal role of sensorimotor processes in the reading difficulties of dyslexics meets with strong resistance. However, we believe that this resistance owes more to theoretical preconceptions than to real methodological problems. We address in turn methodological, interpretation and theoretical issues raised by Bishop, Goswami, Nicolson and Fawcett and by Tallal, as this allows us to examine again the evidence and counterevidence for the claims we have made.

Ramus, R., 2004 Neurobiology of dyslexia: a reinterpretation of the data link to pdf

Theories of developmental dyslexia differ on how to best interpret the great variety of symptoms (linguistic, sensory and motor) observed in dyslexic individuals. One approach views dyslexia as a specific phonological deficit, which sometimes co-occurs with a more general sensorimotor syndrome. This article on the neurobiology of dyslexia shows that neurobiological data are indeed consistent with this view, explaining both how a specific phonological deficit might arise, and why a sensorimotor syndrome should be significantly associated with it. This new conceptualisation of the aetiology of dyslexia could generalize to other neurodevelopmental disorders, and might further explain heterogeneity within each disorder and comorbidity between disorders.

Rawson, M., 2010 Learning to Learn: more than a skill set link to pdf

Learning to learn’ has become part of the skills agenda. This article raises the question of whether this should be regarded purely as a skill. The position is developed that learning to learn, to be truly effective within a changing world, involves a far greater depth of personal learning than skill development alone. So how might this be encouraged? Before this can be discussed, it is felt necessary to explore two areas. Firstly, personal development is reviewed, to improve understanding of the personal learning involved in learning to learn. Secondly, academic assessment is examined, as an area offering considerable potential leverage. A number of issues are then advanced for discussion; speci® cally power, knowledge, involvement and design.

Reeve, J., Nix, G., Hamm, D., 2003 Testing models of the experience of self-determination in intrinsic motivation and the conundrum of choice link to pdf

The authors investigated 3 commonly cited experiential qualities to propose a model of the essential nature of perceived self-determination in intrinsic motivation–internal locus, volition, and perceived choice. In 3 studies, they used structural equation modeling to compare a series of nested models in which 1, 2, or all 3 of these qualities were used to identify the best fitting conceptual model. Results consistently supported the model in which internal locus and volition, but not perceived choice, constitute valid indicators of self-determination. In light of the findings, the authors proposed a modified definition for perceived self-determination and discussed the conundrum of choice by proposing the conditions under which teachers can (and cannot) expect choice to increase students’ intrinsic motivation.

Reiff, H.B., 2004 Reframing the learning disabilities experience redux link to pdf

The authors investigated 3 commonly cited experiential qualities to propose a model of the essential nature of perceived self-determination in intrinsic motivation–internal locus, volition, and perceived choice. In 3 studies, they used structural equation modeling to compare a series of nested models in which 1, 2, or all 3 of these qualities were used to identify the best fitting conceptual model. Results consistently supported the model in which internal locus and volition, but not perceived choice, constitute valid indicators of self-determination. In light of the findings, the authors proposed a modified definition for perceived self-determination and discussed the conundrum of choice by proposing the conditions under which teachers can (and cannot) expect choice to increase students’ intrinsic motivation.

Reynolds, W.M., Miller, G.E. (eds) 2003 Handbook of Psychology - Volume 7: Educational Psychology link to pdf

This volume of the Handbook of Psychology is dedicated to the field of educational psychology. Educational psychology is focused largely on the application of psychological principles to the study of human learning and development in educational settings. Educational psychology traces its roots to the beginnings of psychology as a field of study in the United States with the pioneering work of William James. Research in the field of educational psychology has progressed over the past century with an explosion of research across numerous domains of this field in the last quarter of the twentieth century.


  • 4 SELF-REGULATION AND LEARNING 59 Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman
  • 5 METACOGNITION AND LEARNING 79 Christine B. McCormick

  • 8 TEACHING PROCESSES IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION 153 Michael Pressley, Alysia D. Roehrig, Lisa Raphael, Sara Dolezal, Catherine Bohn, Lindsey Mohan, Ruth Wharton-McDonald, Kristen Bogner, and Kass Hogan
  • 9 COOPERATIVE LEARNING AND ACHIEVEMENT: THEORY AND RESEARCH 177 Robert E. Slavin, Eric A. Hurley, and Anne Chamberlain
  • 10 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TEACHERS AND CHILDREN 199 Robert C. Pianta, Bridget Hamre, and Megan Stuhlman
  • 11 SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT 235 Kathryn R. Wentzel

  • 13 EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 285 Hillel Goelman, Catherine J. Andersen, Jim Anderson, Peter Gouzouasis, Maureen Kendrick, Anna M. Kindler, Marion Porath, and Jinyoung Koh
  • 15 MATHEMATICAL LEARNING 357 Richard Lehrer and Richard Lesh
  • 16 COMPUTERS, THE INTERNET, AND NEW MEDIA FOR LEARNING 393 Ricki Goldman-Segall and John W. Maxwell

  • 17 SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY 431 Daniel J. Reschly
  • 18 LEARNING DISABILITIES 455 Linda S. Siegel
  • 20 SCHOOL-RELATED BEHAVIOR DISORDERS 511 Hill M. Walker and Frank M. Gresham

  • 22 EDUCATIONAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION RESEARCH 557 Joel R. Levin, Angela M. O'Donnell, and Thomas R. Kratochwill
  • 24 FUTURE PERSPECTIVES IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 609 Gloria E. Miller and William M. Reynolds

  • Author Index 631
  • Subject Index 653

Rice, M., Brooks, G., 2004 Developmental dyslexia in adults: a research review link to pdf

National Research and Development Centre for adult literacy and numeracy: Review:
The Skills for Life strategy is committed to addressing the needs of learners with learning difficulties such as developmental dyslexia. The term ‘dyslexia’ is problematic: there are many definitions, with varying degrees of overlap. For the purposes of this review, ‘dyslexia’ has been interpreted widely, to embrace most if not all of the ways in which the term has been used by scientists and educationalists. This is a research review. It was undertaken to establish the evidence base for developmental dyslexia in adults. It began by searching electronic data bases, exploring library holdings, and following citation trails. This process identified a large number of potentially relevant book chapters and papers published in peer-reviewed journals, which were then read critically. The review draws attention to a range of methodological and interpretational problems in the literature, with particular respect to sampling and research design. It presents a detailed account of phonological awareness. Four explanatory theories of dyslexia are summarised and their implications for teaching practice are assessed. Three alternative perspectives on developmental reading difficulties are described. The language in these accounts reflects, where necessary, the terminology used in their sources.

Richardson, J.T.E., Wydell. T.N., 2003 The representation and attainment of students with dyslexia in UK Higher Education link to pdf

Using a database of all students in higher education in the UK in 1995–1996, students with dyslexia and those with no reported disability were compared in terms of demographic properties, programmes of study and academic attainment. Students with dyslexia constituted 0.42% of all students resident in the UK. Their representation varied with age, gender, ethnicity and entrance qualifications and with their level, mode and subject of study. Students with dyslexia were more likely to withdraw during their first year of study and were less likely to complete their programmes of study, although with appropriate support the completion rate of students with dyslexia can match that of students with no disabilities. In addition, students with dyslexia who completed first-degree programmes tended to gain a poorer class of honours than students with no reported disability, but 40% obtained firstclass or upper second-class honours. In short, dyslexia may have deleterious consequences for progression, completion and achievement in higher education, but it is by no means incompatible with a high level of success, given appropriate commitment on the part of the students and appropriate resources on the part of their institution.

Richardson, J.T.E., 2009 The academic attainment of students with disabilities in UK HE link to pdf

This study investigated the role of disablement as a predictor of academic attainment among students awarded first degrees by UK institutions of higher education in 2004–05. Disability explained only 0.1% of the variation in attainment, as measured by whether the graduates had obtained good degrees (i.e. with first-class or upper second-class honours). Graduates with dyslexia and graduates with multiple disabilities were less likely to obtain good degrees than graduates with no known disability, but this was mainly due to the confounded effects of demographic and institutional variables. Graduates with an unseen disability were the only group to show significantly poorer attainment when the latter variables had been controlled. In overall terms, disablement per se does not play a significant role in predicting attainment.

Richardson, M., Abraham, C., Bond, R., 2012 Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis link to pdf

A review of 13 years of research into antecedents of university students’ grade point average (GPA) scores generated the following: a comprehensive, conceptual map of known correlates of tertiary GPA; assessment of the magnitude of average, weighted correlations with GPA; and tests of multivariate models of GPA correlates within and across research domains. A systematic search of PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge databases between 1997 and 2010 identified 7,167 English-language articles yielding 241 data sets, which reported on 50 conceptually distinct correlates of GPA, including 3 demographic factors and 5 traditional measures of cognitive capacity or prior academic performance. In addition, 42 non-intellective constructs were identified from 5 conceptually overlapping but distinct research domains: (a) personality traits, (b) motivational factors, (c) self-regulatory learning strategies, (d) students’ approaches to learning, and (e) psychosocial contextual influences. We retrieved 1,105 independent correlations and analyzed data using hypothesis-driven, random-effects meta-analyses. Significant average, weighted correlations were found for 41 of 50 measures. Univariate analyses revealed that demographic and psychosocial contextual factors generated, at best, small correlations with GPA. Medium-sized correlations were observed for high school GPA, SAT, ACT, and A level scores. Three non-intellective constructs also showed medium-sized correlations with GPA: academic self-efficacy, grade goal, and effort regulation. A large correlation was observed for performance self-efficacy, which was the strongest correlate (of 50 measures) followed by high school GPA, ACT, and grade goal. Implications for future research, student assessment, and intervention design are discussed.

Riddell, S., Weedon, E., 2007 What counts as a reasonable adjustment? Dyslexic students and the concept of fair assessment link to pdf

This article focuses on the construction of dyslexia in higher education and explores the nature of negotiations between students, lecturers and academic institutions over diagnosis, support and assessment. Disabled students are now entitled, under the terms of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA), to reasonable adjustments in assessment. However, there continue to be debates about the nature of dyslexia and the extent to which requests for reasonable adjustments threaten to compromise academic standards. The article begins with a brief overview of the provisions of the DDA and its implications for learning support and adjustments to assessment in higher education, before considering current debates in education over the nature of dyslexia and its implications for assessment in higher education. We then consider the incidence of dyslexia in higher education and the implications of the rapid growth in the number and proportion of disabled students in higher education for assessment practices. Subsequently, we present case studies of dyslexic students and discuss (a) the way in which dyslexia is understood by different actors and (b) institutional responses to claims for reasonable adjustment in teaching and assessment.

Riddick, B., 2000 An examination of the relationship between labelling and stigmatization with special reference to dyslexia link to pdf

In this paper it is argued that although labelling can lead to stigmatisation, this is not always the case. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that stigmatisation can take place in the absence of formal labelling or stigmatisation can precede labelling. Most of the evidence presented is from two interview studies one with 27 children and the other with 16 adults. It is suggested that further deconstruction of the labelling process is necessary, and that factors such as whether labels are formal or informal, private or public need to be taken into account. Finally, it is proposed that labelling can be considered at many levels of analysis from the personal to the political and that a coherent framework that integrates these different levels of analysis is needed.

Riddick. B., Sterling, C., Farmer, M., Morgan, S., 1999 Self-esteem and anxiety in the educational histories of adult dyslexic students link to pdf

The self-esteem, anxiety and past and present educational histories of 16 dyslexic university students and 16 matched controls were compared. Self-esteem was measured using the Culture-free Self-esteem Inventory and anxiety was measured with the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory. A questionnaire devised by the research team was used to gather information on past and present educational histories, including a number of questions that could be rated on a five point scale. The dyslexic group was found to have significantly lower self-esteem than the controls. On the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory there was no significant difference between the groups. On the five point rating scales the dyslexic group reported themselves as feeling more anxious and less competent in their written work at school than the controls and rated themselves at university as less competent both in their written work and in their academic achievements.

Robbins, S.B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., Langley, R., Carlstrom, A., 2004 Do psycho-social and study skill factors predict college outcomes? A meta-analysis link to pdf

This study examines the relationship between psychosocial and study skill factors (PSFs) and college outcomes by meta-analyzing 109 studies. On the basis of educational persistence and motivational theory models, the PSFs were categorized into 9 broad constructs: achievement motivation, academic goals, institutional commitment, perceived social support, social involvement, academic self-efficacy, general self-concept, academic-related skills, and contextual influences. Two college outcomes were targeted: performance (cumulative grade point average; GPA) and persistence (retention). Meta-analyses indicate moderate relationships between retention and academic goals, academic self-efficacy, and academic related skills (_s _ .340, .359, and .366, respectively). The best predictors for GPA were academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation (_s _ .496 and .303, respectively). Supplementary regression analyses confirmed the incremental contributions of the PSF over and above those of socioeconomic status, standardized achievement, and high school GPA in predicting college outcomes.

Rodgers, J., Namaganda, S., 2005 Making information easier for people with learning disabilities link to pdf

This paper begins with a discussion of what we mean by easy information. It then describes the methods employed in a project to create guidance on making information easier for people with learning disabilities. Researchers and people with learning disabilities worked together to interview information providers about approaches they had used and to carry out a literature review. Draft guidance was written and tested with a range of groups and individuals. Key findings from the project were the necessity of a clear aim when planning information, the need to consider carefully the best format or media for sharing your message and most importantly, to work with your intended audience when creating information. The paper goes on to discuss the importance of making information appropriate for all sections of the community, including people from Black and minority ethnic groups.

Rosslyn, F., 2007 Emotional and behavioural difficulties link to pdf

This article makes observations on the emotional and behavioural difficulties of university students. The rapid expansion of the higher education sector since the 1980s has brought an increased need for liaison between academics and university counsellors and other health professionals. Key tasks confronting students are separation from the family, the articulation of a sense of ‘self’, and the internalization of knowledge. Depression and anxiety are the likely side-effects of undertaking these, but peer-group and tutorial support can assist the authentic growth that is the real goal of tertiary education.

Runswick-Cole, K., 2014 'Us' and 'them': the limits and possibilities of a 'politics of neurodiversity' in neoliberal times link to pdf

The neurodiversity movement claims that there are neurological differences in the human population, and that autism is a natural variation among humans – not a disease or a disorder, just 'a difference'. A 'politics of neurodiversity' is based on the claim that the 'neurodiverse' population constitutes a political grouping comparable with those of class, gender, sexuality or race. This paper considers the limits and possibilities of neurodiverse political activism, and concludes by calling for a politics of identity that does not depend on a politics of 'us' and 'them'.

Ryan, J., 2007 Learning disabilities in Australian universities link to pdf

Although more students with learning disabilities (LD) are enrolling in Australian universities, their learning needs are not well understood. This article reports on the experiences of students with LD who are encouraged to enter the academy by Australian university policies and government legislation but, once there, find that the promise of equal opportunity is often not kept. This article provides some insights into how university lecturers’ normative expectations and practices can affect students’ everyday experiences. Interviews with students with LD showed that they do not often receive support services, their “stories” are not believed, and they often feel that they do not “belong.”

Sander, P., 2004 Understanding the learner for more effective university teaching link to pdf

Sander's original PhD by published works
To teach students efficiently and effectively, it is helpful to understand their conceptions of teaching and learning. Given the higher proportion of school leavers entering Higher Education and greater undergraduate diversity, this is more imperative. With the greater likelihood of large class sizes, more formalised means of understanding students must be sought. Whilst using small group work as part of undergraduate teaching can help, some explicit attempts to collect profile information on students can help teachers offer better learning experiences, Student Expectation Research The research programme started with a piece of action research (Stevenson, Sander and Naylor, 1996; Stevenson and Sander, 1998) with distance learning students, by collecting their expectations through both a telephone survey and a postal questionnaire.
Action Research has very limited generalisability, but the principle of surveying students' expectations was promising and extended. The USET survey (Sander et al, 2000) found mismatches between the teaching that students hoped for and expected. Expectations do not have to be met, although there may be some merit in doing so (Stevenson, Sander and Naylor, 1997). Expectations may also be managed (Hill, 1995). One finding from the USET study was that different groups of students had different reasons for disliking student presentations, perhaps due to different levels of academic confidence. Students' reasons for disliking presentations were pursued through re-analysis of the USET qualitative data (Stevenson and Sand er, 2002, Sander and Stevenson, 2002). However, that students dislike presentations is worrying given their effectiveness (Sander, Sanders and Stevenson, 2OO2).
Academic Gonfidence Research To explore the possibility of a link between academic confidence and reasons for not liking student presentations, the Academic Confidence Scale was developed and validated (Sander and Sanders, 2003). ln addition to finding the hypothesised group differences in confidence, a startling drop in academic confidence during the first year was detected.

Sander, P., 2005 Increasing student numbers: diminishing tutor insight? link to pdf

In order to provide efficient and effective education it is essential that teachers understand their students as learners. With small class sizes informal means may be sufficient; however, the current climate in higher education is rightly promoting greater participation and student diversity which is leading to larger and less heterogeneous classes since there has been no concomitant increase in resources. Therefore, more formalised means to understand students as learners may be required. One strategy to facilitate this would be survey methods. These could be employed to enable teachers to understand students' expectations of teaching, learning and assessment; their conceptions of learning; their epistemological beliefs; and their reflective thinking abilities. Insights from such surveys may enable teachers to construct more effective learning environments for their many and diverse students.

Sander, P., Stevenson, K., King, M., Coates, D., 2000 University students' expectations of teaching link to pdf

This study used a specially designed questionnaire to explore undergraduate students’ expectations of and preferences in teaching, learning and assessment. A convenience sample of 395 ® rst-year university undergraduates at the start of their university life was used. They were enrolled on a Medical, Business Studies or Psychology degree course at one of three British universities. Overall, the similarities in expectations and preferences between the three groups were greater than the differences. Speci® cally, the students expected to be taught by formal and interactive lectures but preferred to be taught by interactive lectures and group-based activities. Their least favoured learning methods were formal lecture, role-play and student presentations. Coursework assessment preference was for essays, research projects and problems/exercises. Although there was an overall preference slightly in favour of coursework assessment rather than examinations, this was not consistent across all three centres. Students asked to rate various qualities of a good teacher selected `teaching skill’ , followed by `approachability’ as the most important. The effective collection and value to institutions of students’ expectations is discussed.

Sander, P., 2003 Researching our students for more effective university teaching link to pdf

In order to provide efficient and effective education it is essential that teachers understand their students as learners. With small class sizes informal means may be sufficient: however, the current climate in HE is rightly promiting greater participation and student diversit, leading to larger and less homogeneous classes since there have been no concomitant increase in resources. Therefore, more formalized means to understand students as learners may be required. One strategy to facilitate this would be survey methods. These could be employed to enable teachers to understand students' expectations of teaching, learning and assessment; their conceptions of learning; their epistemological beliefs; and their reflective thinking abilities. Insights from such surveys may enable teachers to construct more effective learning environments for their many and diverse students.

Sander, P., Sanders, L., 2003 Measuring confidence in academic study: a summary report link to pdf

Introduction:Guided by the work of Bandura on self-efficacy, this study seeks to determine the extent to which differences in students' expectations of higher education could be explained by differing levels of confidence.
Method:An Academic Confidence Scale (ACS) was constructed and used for a survey of level 1 students to explore differences in confidence getween two very differnt student groups. One group was further tested for their confidence later in the year and at the same time, they completed a Ladder of Aspiration (LofAsp), to validate the Academic Confidence Scale. With these data, the ACS could be explored further for underlying factors.
Results:Factor analysis of the ACS yielded six factors (studying, understanding, verbalization, clarifying, attendance and grades). The LofAsp provided validation of the ACS. From the LofAsp a small group that rated themselves lower than the national average was identified. This group was interesting both in terms of ACS scores and academic performance. ACS scores showed a significant reduction over time.
Discussion:A comparison of the ACS scores between the two student groups suggests that confidence could only be responsible to a small extent for differences in students' expectations of higher education. the reduction in ACS scores indicates that ACS is affected by student performance, rather than afects student performance. It also asks questions about students' ability to reason with statistical data as well as their views on their likely performance on their course.

Sander, P., Sanders, L., 2005 Students' presentations: Does the experience change their views? link to pdf

Introduction: Research has shown that students do not like student presentations, yet a case can be made for them. This study seeks to understand the effects that presentations have on students.
Method: Within an action research framework, two repeated-measures studies were completed, one with students undertaking assessed presentations the other with those doing non-assessed presentations. Respondents completed both measures of the Views on Teaching, Learning and Assessment questionnaire (VTLA, derived from Sander et al., 2000) at the start and at the end of each study. All respondents completed the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC, Sander & Sanders 2003) at the start of each study but its second measurement was taken when only part of each cohort had undertaken a presentation.
Results: In the assessed presentation study, students who had done their presentations showed an overall increase in ABC, (p<0.05) indicating improved confidence. No such increase was found after the nonassessed presentation. In both studies, students showed significant increases in their responses to items on the ABC that related to public speaking, (p<0.05). The VTLA revealed that experiencing presentations as a teaching method can help students feel more positive about them and able to acknowledge benefits of presenting than they did prior to this experience. It also confirmed that students find presentations daunting and some have some concerns about learning from peers.
Discussion: The different responses in the two studies may have been influenced by the way that presentations were integrated into modules at different levels. However, it would seem that the experience of presentations might raise student confidence in their own abilities although it is less likely to change their views of the prospect of presenting.

Sander, P., Sanders, L., 2006 Understanding academic confidence link to pdf

This paper draws on the psychological theories of self-efficacy and the self-concept to understand students’ self-confidence in academic study in higher education as measured by the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC). In doing this, expectancy-value theory and self-efficacy theory are considered and contrasted with self-concept and self-esteem. Particular emphasis is placed on the social environment in which students are studying, supported by psychological research from social comparison theory, frames of reference and discourse communities. Against this background, the ABC scale is compared and contrasted with self-efficacy and self-concept measures. It is argued that the ABC scale bridges the gap between these two approaches. In conclusion, it is suggested that the ABC scale can be used to gain a better understanding of students’ confidence in themselves as learners, making it a useful survey tool in pedagogical research and practice.

Sanders, L., Sander, P., 2007 Academic behavioural confidence: A comparison of medical and psychology students link to pdf

Introduction. Sander, Stevenson, King and Coates (2000) identified differences between medical students in a conventional university and psychology students in a post-1992 university in their responses to different styles of learning and teaching.
Method. It had been hypothesised that differing levels of confidence explained why the former felt student presentations would teach them little while the response of the latter was based on fear of presenting. The study reported here investigated differing levels of academic confidence in these two groups using a scale designed to measure Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC).
Results. There was a significant difference between the ABC scores for the two groups (p<.05) in line with the prediction. Further examination of data showed that the ABC scores of the medical students as a group were more varied than those of the psychologists whilst the latter showed more variation across the elements of the scale. Proposals for the further development and deployment of the scale are considered. Conclusion. This study suggests that these two groups come to university very differently prepared for meet the demands of higher education

Sander, P., Sanders, L., 2007 Gender, Psychology students and higher education [using ABC] link to pdf

Our interest in gender differences in orientation to academic study was prompted by an accumulation of anecdotal data that male and female students seem to behave differently in relation to their academic studies. In this paper, we will introduce some provoking pilot survey data from our Level 1 students (N = 126), set against a background literature which together suggest that Level 1 male undergraduate students in a psychology degree tend to have a different orientation to their studies from that of their female colleagues, a difference that is also perceived by their peers. From this, the implications for teaching psychology will be considered.

Sander, P., 2009 Current developments in measuring academic behavioural confidence link to pdf

Using published findings and by further analyses of existing data, the structure, validity and utility of the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC) is critically considered. Validity is primarily assessed through the scale’s relationship with other existing scales as well as by looking for predicted differences. The utility of the ABC scale is demonstrated through its ability to discriminate between undergraduate students on different courses; between dyslexic and non dyslexic undergraduate students; undergraduate students in different countries and undergraduate students of different sex. Changes in ABC over time are considered and linked to an over-confidence bias in students in higher education. Finally, it is suggested that the ABC scale and a related measure, the Performance Expectation Ladder can identify and help teachers in higher education understand students with low academic confidence who need supporting.

Sander, P. 2009 Measuring academic behavioural confidence: the ABC scale revisited link to pdf

The Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale has been shown to be valid and can be useful to teachers in understanding their students, enabling the design of more effective teaching sessions with large cohorts. However, some of the between-group differences have been smaller than expected, leading to the hypothesis that the ABC scale many not be unidimensional and that inherent subscales may be behaving in different ways, reducing the size of anticipated ABC effects. This study aimed to analyse the factor structure of the ABC scale. Preexisting data sets were combined into a large composite data set (n = 865) of undergraduate student respondents to the ABC scale. Exploratory factor analyses using SPSS, and confirmatory factor analysis in AMOS, were carried out. A reduced, 17-item ABC scale can be considered as having four factors, grades, verbalising, studying and attendance. From the data sets, the discriminative power of the factor structure has been confirmed, with the results providing further criterion validity of the ABC scale.

Sanders, L., Sander, P., Mercer, J., 2009 Rogue males? Approaches to study and academic performance of male psychology students link to pdf

This three-year longitudinal study explored the approach to study and academic performance of a group of male psychology undergraduates. In induction week, 112 new psychology students completed the survey. Later in the year, some of the males were interviewed in small groups. Performance was measured from marks at the end of Years 1 and 3. In Year 1, compared with their female contemporaries, male respondents had higher self-esteem (p<.01), expected higher marks (p<.001) and anticipated performing better than their peers (p<.05). In interviews, males described themselves as being less motivated and less organised than females, but did not consider this a problem. The only difference in marks showed males doing worse in coursework at Year 1 (p<.05). However, significantly more males failed to complete the course. These findings are set in the context of concerns about under achievement of males and discussed in relation to research into transition to university.

Sander, P., Williamson, S., 2010 Our teachers and what we have learnt from them [ABC & dyslexia] link to pdf

In this contribution to the Widening Participation Special Issue of Psychology Teaching Review we consider our experiences in education as people who can't spell using an auto-ethnographic methodology (Sparkes, 2007), specifically, evocative auto-ethnography (Anderson, 2006) and guided by a social constructionist approach to identity (Burr, 1995). We consider how we have become the people we are through the ways others have responded to the Dyslexic or Dyslexic type aspects of ourselves. We start with Paul ruminating about life in education as a terrible speller 1 . We then move on to explore Stella's experiences as a Dyslexic student and on into the early days of her academic career. We finish conversationally by questioning each other about the significance of our experiences and their implications both for education and the social construction of identity. The overall aim of this article is to ask teachers who are intolerant of poor spellers to take a more supportive approach, mindful of the impact they can have. We also seek to support University students who suffer at the hands of their teachers and important others on account of their Dyslexic type symptoms. The students will know who they are as they will have been labelled so many times but we do worry that the teachers may not be able to identify themselves, such are the power relations inherent in the social construction of identity

Sander, P., de la Fuente, J., Stevenson, K., Jones, T., 2011 A validation of the ABC Scale with Spanish psychology students link to pdf

Research has shown that UK university students' confidence in engaging with their academic studies can be usefully measured using the Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale. The scale is best considered as a 17-item scale measuring confidence towards grades, studying, verbalising and attendance. A substantial collaborative study with research partners in Spain created the need for the ABC scale to be translated into Castellan Spanish, providing an opportunity to carry out a cross-cultural validation of the scale. A total of 2,056 Spanish psychology students from the universities of Almería and Granada in south-eastern Spain completed an appropriately translated version of the ABC scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the four-subscale structure derived from equivalent UK students was still the best description of the data, although the fit of the four-factor model to the Spanish data was not quite as good as it had been with an equivalent UK sample. Possible explanations for the poorer fit are discussed. A further opportunity arose to validate the Spanish version of the ABC scale against the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire. The findings showed that the ABC subscales of Grades, Studying and Verbalising significantly correlated with a deep approach to learning, as predicted, although it is noted that the correlation coefficients, whilst significant (p < .01), were again not as high as seen with the UK student data. It is nevertheless argued that the ABC scale in both its Spanish and English versions is a useful way of understanding students' orientation to their university study, and can be used in research, as a diagnostic tool or to aid tutors in creating more effective learning opportunities for their students.

Sander, P., Putwain, D., de la Fuente, J., 2013 Using structural equation modelling to understand predictors of undergraduate students' academic performance link to pdf

This chapter argues that there are many, just many many variables which contribute to academic performance as measured in degree outcome, and, as such, simple bivariate analysis is inappropriate. We use structural equation modelling, and explore the contribution of academic behavioural confidence, to make the point that it does contribute to academic performance, but to a lesser extent than self-efficacy theory argues. We suggest that this is because degree outcome is made up of many efficacy variables, which we argue are better captured overall in academic behavioural confidence.

Sanders, L., Mair, C., James, R., 2016 Using psychometrics to identify traditionally-aged and mature students at risk of non-completion link to pdf

Returning to higher education can be a life-enhancing step, but returning then not completing can have a deleterious effect on self-esteem. Early identification of those at risk of non-completion would enable focussed deployment of supportive interventions. The work reported was designed to evaluate the use of two psychometric scales to predict successful completion of the first year of study in Higher Education. The aim of this paper is to explore the efficacy of these tests for both traditionally aged and older students returning to study. In both studies participants were asked to complete the Performance Expectation Ladder and the Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) Scale at the start of the academic year. These data were then analysed by the subsequent outcome data from the examining boards at the end of that year. The first study comprised 160 Foundation Year students from four courses across two universities in different countries in the UK. For the sample as a whole, one subscale on the ABC Scale, Attendance, was significantly associated with successful end of year outcome. Broken down by age group, this applied to traditionally aged students and returning students under 40, but not to the small number of older returning students (N=5). The second study comprised 503 first year degree students from 19 courses across two universities. Again the Attendance subscale was the most effective predictor of end of year outcome for students under 40, with the 21 older students showing a different pattern. In both studies the older students had high scores on the Attendance subscale, but lower end of year success rates than their younger contemporaries. It is acknowledged that the examining board outcome data provided a relatively crude distinction between those who were able to progress at this juncture from those who were not; this lack of subtlety in grouping however is likely to underestimate any real differences between successful and unsuccessful students. The findings suggest that the ABC may be used to identify those at risk of non-progression for traditional aged and younger returners. It appears ineffective as a diagnostic tool for more mature students. The latter's high level of confidence in attending yet relatively poor outcome is worthy of further consideration in the context of thwarted commitment for the mature returner to education. It would be informative to extending this research to compare graduation outcomes although it is noteworthy that national statistics evidence that student withdrawal peaks during the first year of study.

Sanders, L., Daly, A.P., Fitzgerald, K., 2016 Predicting retention, understanding attrition: A prospective study of foundation year students link to pdf

The aim of this study was to evaluate two psychometric tools for identifying students at risk of failing to progress from a Foundation Year (FY) programme, a preparatory programme for those without the qualifications to enrol directly on to an undergraduate degree. Students from four FY programmes across two UK universities were invited to complete the survey at the start of the academic year (Time-1) and again towards the end of the FY (Time- 2). The survey comprised the Academic Behaviour Confidence and Performance Expectation Ladder scales, designed to measure students' expectations of their academic performance and achievement. From a total of 198 participants (85% of enrolments), 90 completed measures at both points. End of year examining board outcomes were matched to the survey data. Time 1 data showed that two subscales of the confidence measure, Grades and Attendance, were indicative of subsequent progression issues. At Time 2, diminishing expectations were evident amongst those who subsequently failed to progress, indicating a process of disengagement. Therefore these measures could be used to identify students who might benefit from targeted interventions to help uncertain new entrants access the benefits that Higher Education can provide.

Sanders, L., Mair, C., James, R., 2016 Detecting uncertainty, predicting outcome for first year students link to pdf

Purpose: This study evaluated the use of two psychometric measures as predictors of end of year outcome for first year university students.
Design: New undergraduates (N=537) were recruited in two contrasting universities: one arts based, and one science, in different cities in the UK. At the start of the academic year, new undergraduates across 30 programmes in the two institutions were invited to complete a survey comprising two psychometric measures: Academic Behavioural Confidence Scale and the Performance Expectation Ladder. Outcome data were collected from the Examining Boards the following summer distinguishing those who were able to progress to the following year of study without further assessment from those were not.
Findings: Two of the four Confidence subscales, Attendance and Studying, had significantly lower scores amongst students who were not able to progress the following June compared to those who did (p < 0.003). The Ladder data showed the less successful group to anticipate a poorer performance at graduation relative to their year group than did the other group (p < 0.05).
Value: The results suggest that these two psychometric measures could be instrumental in predicting those at risk of non-completion; such identification could enable the targeted use of limited resources to improve retention. Given the background of limited resources in which institutions are exhorted to improve retention rates, this approach, facilitating the early identification of those at risk of non-completion, could enable focussed use of additional support to reduce attrition.

Santhanam, E., Hicks, O., 2004 Student perceptions of inclusion in unit/course evaluations link to pdf

Good teaching should be inclusive of all students. There are very strong arguments for making courses/units/modules as inclusive as possible, based on issues of equity and access. Inclusive teaching has been a catch cry in recent times and most universities have policies related to this issue. However, research into the effectiveness of measures taken to ensure that teaching caters to all students is rare. The scarcity of such information may be due to the difficulty in finding an appropriate method of evaluation. One of the means to evaluate teaching of a unit or course is to obtain feedback from students. Although information collected through this method may be subjected to biases, student perceptions can still provide useful data that can be incorporated into a broader evaluation system. This paper discusses an investigation into the inclusive nature of a large number of units offered at The University of Western Australia over 3 years. Student ratings in relation to the issue of inclusivity were also explored for possible influences of the year level of courses, broad discipline areas and student gender. The results of this study indicate that these three factors could affect how students view the inclusive nature of particular units.

Saracoglu, B., Minden, H., Wilchesky, M., 1989 The adjustment of students wiht learning disabilities to university and its relationship to self-esteem and self-efficacy link to pdf

Using self-report questionnaires, this study found that a sample of 34 university students with learning disabilities reported significantly poorer self-esteem, academic adjustment, and personal-emotional adjustment than a sample of 31 non-learningdisabled students. For both groups, self-esteem correlated positively with general self-efficacy. Both variables correlated positively with adjustment to university.

Schmitt, N., 1996 Uses and abuses of Coefficient Alpha [Cronbach] link to pdf

The article addresses some concerns about how coefficient alpha is reported and used. It also shows that alpha is not a measure of homogeneity or unidimensionality. This fact and the finding that test length is related to reliability may cause significant misinterpretations of measures when alpha is used as evidence that a measure is unidimensional. For multidimensional measures, use of alpha as the basis for corrections for attenuation causes overestimates of true correlation. Satisfactory levels of alpha depend on test use and interpretation. Even relatively low (e.g., .50) levels of criterion reliability do not seriously attenuate validity coefficients. When reporting intercorrelations among measures that should be discriminable, it is important to present observed correlations, appropriate measures of reliability, and correlations corrected for unreliability.

Schmitt, C., 1918 Developmental Alexia: Congenital word-blindness, or inability to learn to read link to pdf

Congenital word-blindness, inability to learn to read, or dyslexia has been defined as an extreme difficulty to learn to recognize printed or written language on the part of persons otherwise normally endowed mentally and without defect of vision or other physical defect of such gravity as to constitute an interference of the process of learning to read. "Congenital word-blindness" is the term used by nearly all writers on this condition and for that reason will be used throughout this report. This condition was first recognized in 1896. It was first referred to by KerrI in the Howard Prize Essay of the Royal Statis-tical Society. Kerr discussed the needs of school children and mentioned that there were children in the schools who had no physical defects and were well endowed as to general mental ability who could not learn to read and were not understood by their instructors. He recommended that they be taught in separate classes.

Schunk, D.H., 1991 Self-efficacy and academic motivation link to pdf

Academic motivation is discussed in terms of self-efficacy, an individual's judgments of his or her capabilities to perform given actions. After presenting an overview of self-efficacy theory, I contrast self-efficacy with related constructs (perceived control, outcome expectations, perceived value of outcomes, attributions, and self-concept) and discuss some efficacy research relevant to academic motivation. Studies of the effects of person variables (goal setting and information processing) and situation variables (models, attributional feedback, and rewards) on self-efficacy and motivation are reviewed. In conjunction with this discussion, I mention substantive issues that need to be addressed in the self-efficacy research and summarize evidence on the utility of self-efficacy for predicting motivational outcomes. Areas for future research are suggested.

Schunk, D.H., Pajares, F., 2001 The development of academic self-efficacy link to pdf

Current views of cognitive development stress that the construction of knowledge varies as a function of an individual’s developmental level and experiences (Meece, 1997; Siegler, 1991). These views focus on changes in processing functions; for example, attention, encoding, retrieval, metacognition, use of strategies. In similar fashion, contemporary motivation theories focus on the cognitive and affective processes that instigate, direct, and sustain human action. Researchers investigate the operation of such processes as goals, expectations, attributions, values, and emotions (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996). In this chapter we focus on the development of one type of motivational process: perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to beliefs about one’s capabilities to learn or perform behaviors at designated levels (Bandura, 1986, 1997). Much research shows that self-efficacy influences academic motivation, learning, and achievement (Pajares, 1996; Schunk, 1995).

Schunk, D.H., 1984 Self-efficacy perspective on achievement behaviour link to pdf

This article examines the idea that perceived self-efficacy is an important variable in understanding achievement behavior. Self-efficacy refers to personal judgments of one's capability to organize and implement behaviors in specific situations. Students gain information about their level of selfefficacy from self-performances, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological indices. In forming efficacy judgments, people take into account factors such as perceived ability, task difficulty, effort expenditure, performance aids, and outcome patterns. Even when students acquire efficacy information from self-performances, efficacy judgments are not mere reflections of those performances because educational practices differ in the type of information they convey about students' capabilities. Some experimental tests of these ideas are summarized along with their educational implications. The self-efficacy framework is compared with locus of control, attribution, and self-worth theories of achievement behavior.

Schunk, D.H., Hanson, A.R., Cox, P.D., 1987 Peer-model attributes and children's achievement behaviours (self-efficacy) link to pdf

In two experiments, we investigated how attributes of peer models influenced achievement behaviors among children who had experienced difficulties learning mathematical skills in school. In Experiment I, children {M = 10.6 years) observed either a same- or opposite-sex peer model demonstrating rapid (mastery model) or gradual (coping model) acquisition of fraction skills. Observing a coping model led to higher self-efficacy, skill, and training performance. In Experiment 2, children (M = 10.9 years) observed either one or three same-sex peer models demonstrating mastery or coping behaviors while solving fractions. Children in the single-coping-model, multiple-coping-model, and multiple-mastery-model conditions demonstrated higher self-efficacy, skill, and training performance, compared with subjects who observed a single mastery model. In both studies, children who observed coping models judged themselves more similar in competence to the models than did subjects who observed mastery models.

Schwartz, K.D., Fouts, G.T., 2003 Music preferences, personality style, and developmental issues of adolescents (uses Academic Confidence Scale) link to pdf

The purpose of this study was to examine the personality characteristics and developmental issues of 3 groups of adolescent music listeners: those preferring light qualities of music, those preferring heavy qualities of music, and those who had eclectic preferences for music qualities. One hundred sixty-four adolescents completed an age-appropriate personality inventory and a systematic measure of music listening preference. The findings indicate that each of the 3 music preference groups is inclined to demonstrate a unique profile of personality dimensions and developmental issues. Those preferring heavy or light music qualities indicated at least moderate difficulty in negotiating several distinct domains of personality and/or developmental issues; those with more eclectic music preferences did not indicate similar difficulty. Thus, there was considerable support for the general hypothesis that adolescents prefer listening to music that reflects specific personalities and the developmental issues with which they are dealing.

Seale, J., Draffan, E.A., Wald, M., 2008 Exploring disabled learners' experiences of e-learning - LEXDIS Project Report link to pdf

The majority of students who enter higher education are required to use online learning resources or activities (e-learning) to support their formal or informal learning in some way e.g. virtual learning environments, discussion lists, e-mail, podcasts, or library information databases. Within the higher education and e-learning fields there is a growing level of interest in exploring and understanding the e-learning skills and experiences of students in higher education. Initial work by Prensky (2001) and Oblinger (2003) argued that the students of today were sophisticated "digital natives" of the "net generation" who would expect sophisticated uses of technology as an integral part of their university learning experience. Oblinger (2003) argues that this would require institutions to ask how well they know and understand the needs and requirements of these "new" students. Attempts at a UK level to further such understanding have been led by the JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) funded "Learner Experiences of e-Learning" research projects. In Phase One of the research programme, studies revealed that: effective e-learners are flexible, resourceful, self-aware and highly motivated (JISC, 2007). What was not clear from these studies is whether the conclusions are true for all learners, particularly disabled learners who may need to use assistive technologies to enable them to access learning materials and experiences that are provided digitally or online. In a review of learner experience studies, Sharpe et al. (2006) reviewed the impact of individual differences and noted that a disability can dominate the e-learning experience for the individual, along with prior experience and 'attitude towards using computers within learning'. Disabled learners may therefore have different e-learning experiences to non-disabled learners in a similar learning situation.

Seifert, T., 2004 Understanding student motivation link to pdf

Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students’ behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of the influence of emotions was used to unify the theories. In these theories, emotions and beliefs are thought to elicit different patterns of behaviour such as pursuit of mastery, failure avoidance, learned helplessness and passive aggression. Implications emerged which focused upon creating classroom contexts that foster feelings of autonomy, competence and meaning as the catalysts for developing adaptive, constructive learning.

Siemens. G., 2005 Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age link to pdf

Behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism are the three broad learning theories most often utilized in the creation of instructional environments. These theories, however, were developed in a time when learning was not impacted through technology. Over the last twenty years, technology has reorganized how we live, how we communicate, and how we learn. Learning needs and theories that describe learning principles and processes, should be reflective of underlying social environments. Vaill emphasizes that "learning must be a way of being – an ongoing set of attitudes and actions by individuals and groups that they employ to try to keep abreast of the surprising, novel, messy, obtrusive, recurring events…"

Shaukat, S., Bashir, M., 2015 University students' academic confidence: Comparison between social sciences and natural science disciplines link to pdf

The objective of this study was to determine the academic confidence of students in relation to gender, age, qualification and program of studies. Academic confidence means one's strong beliefs or definite expectancy in academic field of the student (Sander & Sanders, 2004). It was hypothesized that there is a significant difference in students' academic confidence among social sciences and natural sciences disciplines. To measure the students' academic confidence a five point Likert type scale 'Academic confidence', based on the six factors of 'Studying' 'Understanding', 'Attendance' 'Grade' 'Verbalization' and 'Clarifying' developed by (Sander and Sanders, 2002), was administrated to collect data from students through random sampling. The results indicated that female students held significantly higher levels of academic confidence than their male counterparts. Students enrolled in the Masters' Education programs and students of public universities following Arts disciplines held significantly higher academic confidence. This study further recommends a more in-depth study of academic confidence as it applies particularly to a Pakistani audience.

Shaywitz, S.E., Shaywitz, B.A., 2005 Dyslexia (Specific Reading Disability) link to pdf

Converging evidence from a number of lines of investigation indicates that dyslexia represents a disorder within the language system and more specifically within a particular subcomponent of that system, phonological processing. Recent advances in imaging technology, particularly the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging, provide evidence of a neurobiological signature for dyslexia, specifically a disruption of two left hemisphere posterior brain systems, one parieto-temporal, the other occipito-temporal, with compensatory engagement of anterior systems around the inferior frontal gyrus and a posterior (right occipito-temporal) system. Furthermore, good evidence indicates a computational role for the left occipito-temporal system: the development of fluent (automatic) reading. The brain systems for reading are malleable and their disruption in dyslexic children may be remediated by provision of an evidence-based, effective reading intervention. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of young adults with reading difficulties followed prospectively and longitudinally from age 5 through their mid twenties suggests that there may be two types of reading difficulties, one primarily on a genetic basis, the other, and far more common, reflecting environmental influences. These studies offer the promise for more precise identification and effective management of dyslexia in children, adolescents and adults.

Shell, D.F., Murphy, C.C., Bruning, R.H., 1989 Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy mechanisms in reading and writing achievement link to pdf

This study examined the relation between self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs and achievement in reading and writing. Most of the 153 subjects were White, middle-class undergraduate students. Efficacy for reading and writing tasks and component skills and outcome expectancies that reading and writing are important for realizing life goals were assessed. Reading achievement was measured by the Degrees of Reading Power test and writing achievement was measured by a holistically scored writing sample. Results from regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs jointly account for significant variance in reading achievement with self-efficacy being the stronger predictor and that self-efficacy, but not outcome expectancy, accounts for significant variance in writing achievement. Canonical correlation analysis identified a single underlying dimension linking beliefs and achievement for reading and writing, with reading beliefs and achievement contributing most strongly to the relation. Results are discussed as they relate to previous research and needed areas of future study.

Shifrer, D., Callahan, R.M., Muller, C., 2013 Equity or marginalization? The high school course-taking of students labelled with a learning disability link to pdf

Placement of some students into the courses needed only for high school graduation and others into those that prepare them for college constitutes academic stratification. This study uses data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 to investigate whether students labeled with learning disabilities complete fewer academic courses by the end of high school compared to their peers who are not labeled. Results indicate large disparities in completion of college preparatory coursework, especially in math, science, and foreign language, even net of students’ academic preparation for high school and their cognitive and noncognitive skills. The evidence supports the possibility that school processes contribute to the poorer course-taking outcomes of students labeled with learning disabilities.

Shifrer, D., 2013 Stigma of a label: Educational expectations for high school students labelled with learning disabilities link to pdf

Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations.

Sideris, G.D., 2005 Social, motivational and emotional aspects of learning disabilities link to pdf

One of the first widely used definitions of learning difficulties, from the US Office of Education (1977) stated that learning disabilities (LD) reflect a disorder in one of the basic psychological processes and manifest themselves with a low ability in language and math; the term excludes children whose performance is the result of emotional disturbances, environmental or other factors (USOE, 1977, p. 65083). As this definition has been the subject of great debate, it is apparent that the definition is deficient in at least two areas: (a) the absence from the definition of key variables such as social, emotional, and motivational, and (b) the definition describes what are NOT the causes of LD but is silent in regard to what those causes are

Sideridis, G.D., Morgan, P.L., Botsas, G., Padeliadu, S., Fuchs, D., Predicting LD on the basis of motivation, metacognition and psychopathology link to pdf

We examined how strongly motivation, metacognition, and psychopathology acted as predictors of learning disabilities (LD). The results from five studies suggested that level of motivation (as shown through self-efficacy, motivational force, task avoidance, goal commitment, or self-concept) was highly accurate in classifying students with or at risk for LD. Metacognition and psychopathology were also strong predictors. Classification accuracy using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves ranged between 77% and 96%. These rates were much higher than the chance-level (i.e., 50%–55%) rates sometimes yielded by cognitive indices. Linear discriminant function (LDF) analysis substantiated classification accuracy. These results suggest that motivation, metacognition, and psychopathology are strong predictors of LD. Understanding the influence of these characteristics may help researchers and practitioners more accurately screen and treat students with LD.

Sims, R., 2006 Beyond instructional design: making learning design a reality link to pdf

When we reflect on the emergence of online education and e-learning as the leading contender to confront the traditions of face-to-face teaching and learning, it is not only a case of better understanding the characteristics of online environments, but also timely to assess the relevance of theories and frameworks informing the design and implementation of those environments. Over the past twenty five years, the value of technology to education has been a significant focus of teachers, learners and institutional administration; it is also a period that has been characterised by lighthouse success stories, rigorous research, technological determinism and unfulfilled promises. As each new generation of technology appeared in the classroom (microcomputers, colour monitors, hypermedia, multimedia, internet), a new generation of early adopters appeared, each seemingly unaware of the research and knowledge gained by the previous generation. In this paper the argument is proposed that even with the strong foundation of knowledge that informs the appropriate ways to use technology for teaching and learning, too often that knowledge has been misunderstood or misused or ignored.

The paper is based on the keynote presentation to the Online Learning and Teaching Conference held in Brisbane on September 23rd 2005. The theme of the conference, Beyond Delivery, was extremely timely as it marked the assertion that it was time to put the simple digitisation of materials behind us and focus on the active, engaging learning opportunities that effectively put the learning back into e-learning to take advantage of collaborative tools, learning communities and mediated conversation for new millennial learners. More importantly the statement that we are beyond delivery also suggests that it is time to embrace change and reflect on new ways to conceptualise the design of online learning environments.

Through this paper an argument is presented for a proactive approach to the conceptualisation, formation and maintenance of online environments that cater specifically for the individual learner. Through an analysis of design strategies, proactive modelling and interactive metrics, a new framework is presented to address the pedagogy of online environments and present an alternative to common instructional design practices. For those committed to online teaching and learning environments populated with collaborating and reflective participants, this framework goes well beyond delivery to a pedagogy centred on emancipation and empowerment for the engaged learner.

Singleton, C., Trotter, S., 2005 Visual stress in adults with and without dyslexia link to pdf

The relationship between dyslexia and visual stress (sometimes known as Meares- Irlen syndrome) is uncertain. While some theorists have hypothesised an aetiological link between the two conditions, mediated by the magnocellular visual system, at the present time the predominant theories of dyslexia and visual stress see them as distinct, unrelated conditions, a view that has received some support from studies with children. Studies of visual stress in adults are rare, yet recent reports of a high incidence of this phenomenon amongst university students with diagnosed dyslexia call for further investigation of the issue. This study sought to clarify the relationship between visual stress and dyslexia by comparing the reading performance of dyslexic and non-dyslexic adults with, and without, colour. Degree of susceptibility to visual stress was determined by means of a symptom rating scale. Optimal colour was determined using an Intuitive Colorimeter, which was also employed to assess reading speed under the two experimental conditions. Only the dyslexic students with high visual stress showed significant gains in reading speed when using optimal colour. The use of response to treatment (rather than symptomatology) as a diagnostic criterion for visual stress is questioned, especially when applied to adults, as this may give misleading findings. On the basis of reported symptomatology, students who experience high levels of visual stress are more likely to show improvements in reading rate with optimal colour if they also have dyslexia than if they do not have dyslexia. Although not establishing an aetiological link, these findings imply an interaction between the two conditions with major implications for theory, diagnosis and treatment.

Singleton, C., Horne, J., 2009 Computerised screening for dyslexia in adults link to pdf

Identifying dyslexia in adulthood presents particular challenges because of complicating factors such as acquisition of compensatory strategies, differing degrees of intervention and the problem of distinguishing dyslexic adults from those whose literacy difficulties have non-cognitive causes. One of the implications is that conventional literacy measures, per se, do not provide a satisfactory basis for screening for dyslexia in adulthood as some dyslexic adults have above-average literacy skills and some non-dyslexic adults have very poor literacy skills. This study examined an alternative approach to dyslexia screening, using three tests that depend heavily on phonological processing, lexical access and working memory, but which are not conventional measures of literacy. Using these tests, which are computer delivered, 70 dyslexic adults from three different types of educational institution were compared with 69 non-dyslexic adults from the same institutions. The results showed that the dyslexic and non-dyslexic groups were significantly different on all three computer-based tests, with an average effect size of 1.55. Adaptive versions of these tests were then created to reduce overall administration time for the suite to about 15 minutes. Analysis showed that the combined scaled scores from the adaptive versions of the three tests significantly discriminated the dyslexic from the non-dyslexic group with an increased effect size of 2.07 and with a sensitivity rate of 90.6% and a specificity rate of 90.0%. It was concluded that this approach is a valid and useful method of identifying dyslexia in adulthood, which, given the ease of administration to large numbers of adults, has noted advantages for education and employment.

Skaalvik, E.M., Hagvet, K.A., 1990 Academic achievement and self-concept: an analysis of causal predominance in a developmental perspective link to pdf

Causal relationships among academic achievement, self-concept of ability, and general self-esteem were examined for two cohorts of Norwegian school children. Measures of the three variables were collected when the students in the two cohorts were attending third and sixth grade and i 8 months later. Four hypotheses were tested by a methodology developed in the frame of structural covarianee models with latent variables by means of the LISm~L VXl program. Support for the assumptions of discriminability and factorial invariance of the concepts across time was obtained independently from estimating structural parameters. The results supported different causal relationships in the two cohorts, suggesting a recursive model at Grades 3 and 4 and a reciprocal model at Grades 6 and 7. The findings strengthened a further need for longitudinal studies examining relationships between academic achievement and self-concept in a developmental perspective.

Skaalvik, E.M., Skaalvik, S., 2002 Internal and exernal frames of reference for academic self-concept link to pdf

Frames of reference play an important role in the development of academic self-concept because students’ judgments of their own achievements have to be made against some frame of reference. Students use multiple frames of reference in making self-judgments. In this article we first distinguish internal and external frames of reference. Wethen identify four possible frames of reference related to external comparisons: (a) school-average ability, (b) class average ability, (c) selected students in class, and (d) selected students outside of class. Wealso propose four types of internal comparisons related to schoolwork: (a) comparison of achievements in different school subjects at a given time, (b) comparison of achievements in the same subject across time, (c) comparison of achievements with goals and aspirations, and (d) comparison of achievements in different school subjects with applied effort in those subjects. By analyzing the eight frames of reference in relation to five sources of information, we illustrate the complexity of internal and external comparisons students make and suggest directions for future research.

Skinner, T., 2011 Dyslexia, mothering and work: intersecting identities, reframing, 'drowning' and resistance link to pdf

This paper focuses on the ways in which mothering, work and dyslexia intersect in lived experience. The theoretical framework used to interpret these experiences draws on competing discourses variously imposed on and internalised by the individual; however, it also stresses the ability (however limited) of the individual to reframe and therefore contest how they have been defined. This is illustrated and developed through an autoethnographic case study where I tell stories about my education, diagnosis as dyslexic, academic work, and experiences of early motherhood.

Skrivanek, S., 2009 Power of a statistical test link to pdf

[Brief paper explaining statistical power; links to www.morestream.com ]

Smith, R., 2007 An overview of research on student support: helping students to achieve or achieving institutional targets? Nurture or de-nature? link to pdf

In the quasi-marketised environment of the new, mass higher education (HE), centralised policy continues to dictate conditions, and traditionally stable sources of income are being made increasingly unreliable. An increasing emphasis on student support within HE institutions (HEIs) has been made necessary by targets for student numbers and the funding that rests on these numbers. These tensions have been added to for ‘post-1992’ universities, by the Widening Participation initiative that brings with it particular issues around recruitment and retention. Rather than focusing on the models and systems of support that are being developed in different HE settings and their effectiveness, the aim of this paper is to theorise the imperatives behind these, to look again at the context that informs their inception and how the various support structures position and identify students. Through this, the tensions that exist between financial incentives, ‘bums on seats’, Widening Participation and academic achievement rates will be explored.

Smith, J., 2002 Learning styles: fashion fad or lever for change? The application of learning style theory to inclusive curriculum delivery link to pdf

As the UK has moved towards a mass higher education system, there have been pressures to change the curriculum and how it is delivered. At the same time, there has been a growing emphasis on widening access and on an inclusive approach to education. Recent renewed interest in learning styles to some extent reflects these developments. But are some classifications more useful than others in developing an inclusive approach? This article takes four classifications of ‘learning styles’ and looks at how they relate to curriculum values. They are field dependence/independence, holistic/sequential, styles linked to the experiential learning cycle, and ‘deep’ and ‘surface’ learning. The author also draws on research at Sheffield Hallam University into the learning styles of GNVQ students, and on experience as a teacher educator in the post-compulsory sector.

Smythe, I., 2011 Dyslexia [from series: Developmental Disorders] link to pdf

Despite of 100 years of research, dyslexia ontinues to be controversial because of the failure to agree on a definition and underlying causes, as well as the funding implications.

This article identifies evidence-based factors that influence the development of reading and may cause difficulties, and the areas of continuing controversy.

Smythe, I., ~Everatt, J., 2001 Adult Checklist for Dyslexia [=BDA] link to pdf

A checklist for dyslexic adults will not provide enough information for a diagnostic assessment, but it can be very useful in promoting a better self-understanding and a pointer towards future assessment needs. Below are the questions that were found to be more predictive of dyslexia (as measured by prior diagnosis). In order to provide the most informative checklist, scores for each answer indicate the relative importance of that question. Alongside each line you can keep a tally of your score and at the end find a total.

Smythe, I., (Ed) date? Provision and use of IT with dyslexic students in University in Europe (eBook) link to pdf

Part 1 - Background
1. Introduction, aims and objectives of the project - Ian Smythe
2. About the Welsh Dyslexia Project - Michael Davies
3. What is dyslexia? A cross-linguistic comparison - Ian Smythe
4. The assessment of the dyslexic adult – a European Framework - Ian Smythe and Linda Siegel
5. Dyspraxia, ADHD, Asperger's and comorbidity - Amanda Kirby
6. Qualifications for those assessing the dyslexic student - Gavin Reid
7. Supporting the dyslexic student at university: a case study - Jane Kirk
8. Matching technology to needs - Bodil Andersson and EA Draffan
9. Dyslexia and E-learning – a guide to good practice - Ian Smythe and EA Draffan
10. A conceptual model of ICT needs of the dyslexic student - Ian Smythe, Paul Blenkhorn, Gareth Evans, Linda Siegel and EA Draffan
11. ICT and examinations at university - EA Draffan, Ian Smythe and Georgiana Ghitulete
12. A student's guide to choosing software - Abi James
13. Using speech recognition with the multilingual dyslexic adult - Linda Siegel
14. What do we need now? - Ian Smythe, EA Draffan, Paul Blenkhorn, Linda Siegel, Eva Gyarmathy, Georgiana Ghitulete, Bodil Andersson
Part 2 – Countries:
1. Introduction - Ian Smythe
2. Austria – results from a survey - Hermine Posch
3. Bulgaria - current provision, including children - Vanya Matanova
4. Canada – an overview of provision - Linda Siegel
5. Denmark – an overview of provision, including support organisations - Brigitte Jandorf and Dorthe Haven
6. Egypt – including an overview of the Arabic language - Gad Elbeheri
7. France – an overview of provision - Liliane Sprenger-Charolles
8. Greece – an overview of provision - Helen Kyratji
9. Hong Kong – an overview of provision - Ian Smythe and Alice Lai
10. Hungary – an overview of provision- Eva Gyarmathy
11. Netherlands – an overview of provision - David Crombie
12. Poland – an overview of provision - Marta Bogdanowicz
13. Romania – an overview of provision and pilot study results - Georgiana Ghitulete
14. Spain – an overview of provision- Almudena Gimenez de la Peña
15. Sweden, including diversity of terminology - Bodil Andersson
16. UK – an overview of provision - Helen Ball, Pete Rainger and EA Draffan
17. USA – an overview of provision - Dan Comden
18. Wales – an overview of provision - Mair Roche and Ian Smythe

Snowling, M., 1996 Dyslexia: a hundred years on link to pdf

The first case of developmental dyslexia was reported by Pringle-Morgan in the BM7on 7 November 1896.
Pringle-Morgan, a general practitioner, and Hinshelwood, an ophthalmologist also writing at the turn of the century, speculated that such difficulties with reading and writing were due to "congenital word blindness," and for many years the dominant view was that dyslexia was caused by visual processing deficiencies. There is still continuing interest in the role of visual factors in the aetiology of dyslexia, especially in low level impairments of the visual system.3 4 However, most research suggests that these are not its cause. The most widely accepted view today is that dyslexia is a verbal deficit' and can be considered part of the continuum of language disorders. Indeed, converging evidence supports a specific theory, that dyslexic readers have phonological (speech) processing deficits.

Snowling, M., 2013 Early identification and interventions for dyslexia: a contemporary view link to pdf

This paper reviews current proposals concerning the definition of dyslexia and contrasts it with reading comprehension impairment. We then discuss methods for early identification and review evidence that teacher assessments and ratings may be valid screening tools. Finally, we argue that interventions should be theoretically motivated and evidence based. We conclude that early identification of children at risk of dyslexia followed by the implementation of intervention is a realistic aim for practitioners and policy-makers.

Snowling, M., Dawes, P., Nash, H., Hulme, C., 2015 Validity of a protocol for adult self-report of dyslexia and related difficulties link to pdf

Background There is an increased prevalence of reading and related difficulties in children of dyslexic parents. In order to understand the causes of these difficulties, it is important to quantify the risk factors passed from parents to their offspring.
Method 417 adults completed a protocol comprising a 15-item questionnaire rating reading and related skills and a scale assessing ADHD symptoms; 344 completed reading, non-word reading and spelling tests.
Results A confirmatory factor analysis with four factors (Reading, Word Finding, Attention and Hyperactivity) provided a reasonable fit to the data. The Reading Factor showed robust correlations with measured literacy skills. Adults who reported as dyslexic, or rated their reading difficulties as more severe, gained lower scores on objective measures of literacy skills. Although the sensitivity of the new scale was acceptable, it tended to miss some cases of low literacy.
Conclusions Self-report scales of reading and of attention difficulties are useful for identifying adults with reading and attention difficulties which may confer risks on their children of related problems. It is important for research following children at family risk of dyslexia to be aware of these effects.

Snowling, M.J., Muter, V., Carroll, J., 2007 Children at risk of dyslexia: a follow-up in early adolescence link to pdf

Background: This study is the follow-up in early adolescence of children born to families with a history of dyslexia (Gallagher, Frith, & Snowling, 2000).
Methods: Fifty young people with a family history of dyslexia and 20 young people from control families were assessed at 12–13 years on a battery of tests of literacy and language skills, and they completed questionnaires tapping self-perception and print exposure. One parent from each family participated in an interview documenting family circumstances (including family literacy) and a range of environmental variables considered likely correlates of reading disability. They also rated their child's behavioural and emotional adjustment and their own health and well-being. Parental literacy levels were also measured.
Results: Forty-two per cent of the 'at-risk' sample had reading and spelling impairments. A significant proportion of the literacy-impaired group were affected by behavioural and emotional difficulties, although they were not low in terms of global self-esteem. The children in the at-risk subgroup who did not fulfil criteria for literacy impairment showed weak orthographic skills in adolescence and their reading was not fluent. There were no differences in the literacy levels or activities of the parents of impaired and unimpaired at-risk children, and no significant correlation between parent and child reading levels in the at-risk group. The impaired group read less than the other groups, their reading difficulties impacted learning at school and there was evidence that they also had an impact on family life and maternal well-being.
Conclusions: The literacy difficulties of children at family-risk of dyslexia were longstanding and there was no evidence of catch-up in these skills between 8 and 13 years. The findings point to the role of gene–environment correlation in the determination of dyslexia. Keywords: Dyslexia, reading difficulties, risk factors, environment, adolescence.

Snyder, M.L., Frankel, A., 1989 Egotism v Learned Helplessness as an explanation for the unsolvable problem effect: Comment on Kofta and Sedek(1989) link to pdf

Kofta and Sedek (1989) attempted to test the egotism explanation for the unsolvable problem effect (unsolvable problems lead to poor performance on a new task) by making failure less explicit and by creating uncertainty about the difficulty and solvability of the test task. They concluded that their results were more supportive of learned helplessness theory. Keeping in mind the central mechanisms posited by each theory (expectancy of control and threat to selfesteem), we believe that the overall pattern of results is equivocal with respect to egotism but damaging to learned helplessness theory. We discuss the seductiveness of terminology, for example, labeling behavior as helpless may predispose one to interpret it in terms of learned helplessness theory.

Solity, J., 2007 Discrepancy definitions of dyslexia link to pdf

Ashton (1996) mounts an argument in favour of maintaining discrepancy-based definitions of dyslexia. His position is potentially quite pernicious since it promulgates practice for which there is no evidence but which will have the effect of denying poor readers, identified as having moderate learning difficulties, resources and provision which will be made available to poor readers defined as having dyslexia. This article examines the issues raised by Ashton and highlights problems with his analysis and interpretation of the literature. It concludes with the suggestion that curriculum-based approaches, which demand systematic observation of how children learn and respond to teaching over time, are the most appropriate means of assessing children's perceived difficulties in learning to read.

Spooner, F., Baker, J.N., Harris, A.A., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Browder, D.M., 2007 Effects of training in universal design for learning on lesson plan development link to pdf

The effects of training in Universal Design for Learning (UDL) on lesson plan development of special and general educators in a college classroom environment were investigated. A true experimental group design with a control group was used for this study. A one-hour teacher training session introduced UDL to the experimental group; the control group received the intervention later. A three-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures was completed for each of the dependent variables (i.e., UDL lesson plan). Differences were found between pretest and posttest measures for both treatment groups for special education and general education teachers. The results suggest that a simple introduction to UDL can help teachers to design a lesson plan accessible for all students

Stajkovic, A.D., 1998 Social Cognitive Theory and self-efficacy: going beyond traditional motivational and behavioural approaches link to pdf

About a decade ago, the prominent Stanford psychologist Albert Bandura translated his years of basic research using a behaviorist and social learning framework into what he called social cognitive theory (SCT). This new theory offered several major advances for the field of psychology and, we would suggest, organizational behavior. First, the scope of SCT is much broader and more comprehensive than behaviorism and social learning, the foundations on which we have been basing our approach to behavioral management. SCT includes cognitive constructs such as self-regulatory mechanisms, which extend beyond issues of learning and/or modifying behavior.

Stankov, L., Lee, J., Luo, W., Hogan, D.J., 2012 Confidence: A better predictor of academic achievement than self-efficacy, self-concept and anxiety? link to pdf

In this paperwe report the results froma study that assessed confidence togetherwith scalesmeasuring self-belief – i.e., self-efficacy, different kinds of self-concepts, and anxiety – among the 15-year old students from Singapore. A distinct confidence factorwas identified in the domains of mathematics (N=1940) and English (N=1786). Our results show that confidence is: a) a robust individual differences dimension; b) that can be combined with accuracy information to obtain bias scores thatmay be useful for group comparisons and for identification of misconceptions about particular topics. Confidence as studied in our work to date has been c) the best predictor of achievement in both mathematics and English; d) is related to both cognitive and self-belief measures; and e) it captures much of the predictive variance of other self-beliefs that are, in turn, among the best known predictors of achievement.

Stankov, L., 2013 Noncognitive predictors of intelligence and academic achievement: An important role of confidence link to pdf

Recent evidence about the relationship between cognitive tests and psychological noncognitive variables is reviewed. Noncognitive measures can be ordered with respect to their predictive validity. Many are poor predictors of intelligence and achievement. Measures of rationality, self-assessment of intelligence, Openness to Experience and self-concept correlate up to .35 with cognitive performance. Some domainspecific self-beliefs (self-efficacy and anxiety) have correlations with appropriate achievement tests that can reach .45. The best predictors of any kind of cognitive performance are measures of confidence (frequently reported correlations of .45 and above) that can capture a major part of predictive validity of the three self-beliefs. The role of self-beliefs has attracted much interest in education but their role in predicting performance on tests of fluid intelligence is likely to be low. However, self-beliefs and confidence in particular may prove to be the most potent noncognitive influences on the development of acculturated knowledge that is captured by measures of crystallized intelligence.

Stankov, L., Kleitman, S., 2014 Whither metacognition link to pdf

Metacognition and learning: strongly related.

There can be no doubt that learning and broadly defined metacognitive processes are strongly related; all four studies provide clear evidence in support of this conclusion. Kleitman and Costa (2014-this issue) show that two metacognitive measures, confidence measures obtained as a learner works through quizzes (together with performance accuracy on those quizzes) and the prediction of the final exam mark, are the best predictors of final exam marks. They also showthe importance of metacognitivemeasures other than confidence itself for students' learning processes overall. Of particular importance is the apparent usefulness of confidence assessments to those students who are struggling with the material — that is, they find the request to re-evaluate their answers useful.

Stanovich, K.E., 1996 Towards a more inclusive definition of dyslexia link to pdf

A reading-IQ discrepancy has been taken as a defining feature of dyslexia. A well-defined syndrome should satisfy three central criteria: it should have distinct phenotypic (performance) patterns; distinct heritability patterns; and distinct neuroanatomical characteristics. There appears to be no solid evidence that dyslexic children differ significantly from poor readers without a Reading-IQ discrepancy on any of these three central criteria. Thus, if the field chooses to retain the term dyslexia, it may be more appropriate to adopt an inclusive definition, applying the label to all poor readers, regardless of reading-IQ discrepancy.

Stanovich, K.E., 1988 Explaining the differences between the dyslexic and the garden-variety poor reader: the ponological-core variable-difference model link to pdf

A coherent conception of dyslexia has been difficult to arrive at because research findings have continually created logical paradoxes for the psychometric definition of reading disability. This paper develops the phonological-core variabledifference model This model of the cognitive characteristics of dyslexic children is one of the few that does not create psychometric paradoxes of the type that have plagued the learning disabilities field. The model provides a way to conceptualize the differences between dyslexic and garden-variety poor readers. The model highlights the importance of viewing the concept of dyslexia as the outcome of the application of an arbitrary criterion in a continuous distribution, thus avoiding the connotations of discreteness that have continually undermined our understanding of reading disability.

Stanovich, K.E., 1993 Does dyslexia exist? link to pdf

Obviously, in order to answer the question posed in the title, we must specify what we mean by the term dyslexia. And, in doing so, we immediately encounter the crux of the problem. This problem is a recurring one in the field of developmental disabilities, and it arises because the field has repeatedly displayed a preference for terminology that connotes unverified theories about causation. For example, in this journal Bishop (1992) has recendy noted how the terms developmental dysphasia and developmental aphasia have "fallen into disfavour in the U.K. and tj.S.A,, largely because they misleadingly imply that we are dealing with a single condition with a known neurological basis" (p. 3). Likewise, the term dyslexia is out of favor in many educational and research communities within North America—and for similar reasons. As we shall see, "dyslexia" carries with it so many empirically unverified connotations and assumptions that many researchers and practitioners prefer to avoid the term. Indeed, it does seem that reading research could benefit from adopting more neutral terms for the phenomena that it studies. Terminology that is less likely to carry with it a speculative theory is to be preferred in the early stages of scientific investigation. The reading field seems unnaturally prone to popularizing terminology that carries with it unproven theory. For example, publications in early literacy research in North America are currently littered with the terms "emergent literacy" and "invented spelling". But, just as with "dyslexia", these are not neutral terms. They are not descriptions of certain operationally-defined performance patterns in early literacy. These terms convey…

Stanovich, K.E., 2005 The future of a mistake: Will discrepancy measurement continue to make the learning disabilities field a pseudoscience? link to pdf

Over the past two decades I have written several articles about assessment procedures in the field of learning disabilities (LD) (Stanovich, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1996, 1999a, 2000). Many of those articles were centered around the issue of aptitude-achievement discrepancy as a defining feature of a learning disability. In dealing with this issue again here and talking about its future, I was drawn to the title of this essay. The title advertises my frustration with the field on this issue. The persistence of the discrepancy concept in LD signals that the field is not ready to put itself on a scientific footing and that it will continue to operate on the borders of pseudoscience. It is ironic that my other research area is critical thinking, particularly the cognitive processes that lead to pseudoscientific thinking (Stanovich, 1999b, 2002, 2004). The fixation on discrepancy measurement provides a test case of things that I study in that area: confirmation bias (e.g., Nickerson, 1998) and failure to consider alternative theories (e.g., Johnson-Laird, 1999; Stanovich, 1999b, 2004).

Stanovich, K.E., 1999 The sociopsychometrics of learning disabilities link to pdf

The Boston University case illustrates how the psyhcmetrics of ability differences interact with the concept of learning disability and with the sociopolitics of schooling and society. It also illustrates that learning disabilities advocacy will not be on a sound footing as long as the field refuses to rid itself of its IQ fetishism, refuses to jetison its dixation on aptitude-achievement discrepancy, and fails to free clinical practice from the pseudoscientific neurology that plagued the field in the 1070s. A more inclusive definition of learning disability - one that abandons discrepancy notions - and more self-critical attitude toward its own claims would advance the field of learning disabilities and help to rid it of distractions such as the Boston University case. [The Boston University case was a legal battle between the University authorities and a group of students with ADD, ADHD and LD who, essentially, were claiming unfair treatment by the University for not properly recognizing their learning difficulties to make reasonable adjustments and accommodations in thelr learning schedules.]

Stein, J., 2001 The magnocellular theory of developmental dyslexia link to pdf

Low literacy is termed ‘developmental dyslexia’ when reading is significantly behind that expected from the intelligence quotient (IQ) in the presence of other symptoms—incoordination, left–right confusions, poor sequencing—that characterize it as a neurological syndrome. 5–10% of children, particularly boys, are found to be dyslexic. Reading requires the acquisition of good orthographic skills for recognising the visual form of words which allows one to access their meaning directly. It also requires the development of good phonological skills for sounding out unfamiliar words using knowledge of letter sound conversion rules. In the dyslexic brain, temporoparietal language areas on the two sides are symmetrical without the normal left-sided advantage.

Stevenson, J., 2012 An exploration of the link between minority ethnic and white students' degree attainment and views of heir future 'possible selves' link to pdf

There is a significant gap in degree attainment between White and minority ethnic (ME) students in the UK as measured by the percentage awarded a ‘good’ degree. The causes for the gap are highly complex; however outcomes for ME students are lower than for their White peers across the whole of the UK higher education sector. This paper explores the extent to which students views of what they believe or expect they can become, their academic ‘possible selves’ (Markus and Nurius, 1986), may inform their academic help seeking strategies and their subsequent degree attainment. Drawing on group interviews with seventy full-time, undergraduate White and ME students studying at two UK ‘Russell group’ universities the research finds that a lack of congruence between hoped for, true and ‘ought to’ selves may be informing, and limiting, the academic help-seeking strategies of Black, Asian and Chinese students compared to their White peers.

Sullivan, G.M, Feinn, R., 2012 Using effect size - or why the 'p' value is not enough link to pdf

Statistical significance is the least interesting thing about the results. You should describe the results in terms of measures of magnitude –not just, does a treatment affect people, but how much does it affect them. - Gene V. Glass;

The primary product of a research inquiry is one or more measures of effect size, not P values. - Jacob Cohen.

These statements about the importance of effect sizes were made by two of the most influential statistician- researchers of the past half-century. Yet many submissions to Journal of Graduate Medical Education omit mention of the effect size in quantitative studies while prominently displaying the P value. In this paper, we target readers with little or no statistical background in order to encourage you to improve your comprehension of the relevance of effect size for planning, analyzing, reporting, and understanding education research studies.

Summerfield, M., Youngman, M., 1999 The relationship between personality and attainment in 16-19 year-old students in a sixth-form college: Construction of the Student Self-Perception Scale link to pdf

Background. Of the research that has been undertaken into the relationship between personality and attainment, relatively little exists relating to the 16–19 age range. In a substantive study examining the relationship between academic self-concept, attainment and personality in sixth form students, a .rst requirement was to design a self-perception instrument. Aims. The psychometric element of the study aimed to construct a Student Self-Perception Scale (SSPS) that would be effective for students in the FE (further education) context. Samples. The samples comprised a pilot sample of 152 students (aged 16–17 years from two sixth form colleges) and a main sample of 364 students (mean age, 16yrs 10mths, range 16:0 to 18:6 years, from one sixth form college). The main sample included similar numbers of male and female students (46% male, 54% female) and ethnic minority students comprised 14% of this sample. Method. An initial item pool of 88 four-point Likert type statements was compiled from comparable existing scales and from responses to a Student Induction Questionnaire. Item analysis was based on oblique factor analysis of the pilot sample responses, followed by cross-validation on the main sample to re.ne the scale structures. Construct validity was established from the substantive study, especially the Nowicki & Strickland (1973) locus of control results. Results. Exploration of the four- and .ve-factor structures led to a .nal speci.cation based on 52 items from .ve oblique factors. The constituent scales were Passivity (12 items, alpha = .81). Mastery (15 items, alpha = .79), Work Related Inadequacy (11 items, alpha = .72), Extraversion (4 items, alpha = .70) and Social Dependence (10 items, alpha = .66), all statistics compiled from the cross-validation sample. Correlations with Locus of Control ranged from 0.52 for Mastery to 2 .34 for Work Related Inadequacy. Distribution statistics for Locus of Control matched a comparable American sample. Conclusions. The .ve-scale structure exhibits good cross-validation characteristics and supports revealing analyses of relationships within the substantive study. Its 52-item format is suitable for research or exploratory use within its intended FE context.

Takahashi, A., Takahashi, H., 2015 Anxiety and self-confidence in ancient language studies [uses ABC] link to pdf

In order to shed light on anxiety pertaining to language learning from a wider perspective, we have conducted research (2011 and 2014) on anxiety in several ancient languages classes. The research revealed that students learning ancient languages such as ancient Greek, Hittite, ancient Egyptian and Latin languages experienced high levels of anxiety. The degrees of anxiety were higher than those from previous studies, whose subjects were native-English-speaking students learning a foreign language, such as Spanish or Japanese. The ancient languages dealt with in our research exist almost solely as languages for reading, and one of the main goals to attain in the classrooms was to be able to read the target language. So, at the same time as we looked at general language anxiety, we also focused particularly on anxiety pertaining to reading. The degrees of the ancient language learners' reading apprehension were high. It was also found that reading anxiety was negatively associated with strength of motivation for learning the Greek language, and that the Latin learners with a higher level of reading anxiety received a lower grade. Reading anxiety was highly positively associated with general language anxiety, and for the Latin learners, it was negatively related with another type of anxiety, i.e. facilitating anxiety. In our research, we also examined facilitating aspects of language anxiety, and found that this type of anxiety was highly negatively associated with general, debilitating anxiety in the Latin classroom, and positively related with strength of motivation in the Latin, Hittite, and Egyptian language classrooms.

Tamboer, P., Vorst, H.C.M., 2015 A new self-report inventory of dyslexia for students: Criterion and construct validity link to pdf

The validity of a Dutch self-report inventory of dyslexia was ascertained in two samples of students. Six biographical questions, 20 general language statements and 56 specific language statements were based on dyslexia as a multi-dimensional deficit. Dyslexia and non-dyslexia were assessed with two criteria: identification with test results (Sample 1) and classification using biographical information (both samples). Using discriminant analyses, these criteria were predicted with various groups of statements. All together, 11 discriminant functions were used to estimate classification accuracy of the inventory. In Sample 1, 15 statements predicted the test criterion with classification accuracy of 98%, and 18 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 97%. In Sample 2, 16 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 94%. Estimations of positive and negative predictive value were 89% and 99%. Items of various discriminant functions were factor analysed to find characteristic difficulties of students with dyslexia, resulting in a five-factor structure in Sample 1 and a four-factor structure in Sample 2. Answer bias was investigated with measures of internal consistency reliability. Less than 20 self-report items are sufficient to accurately classify students with and without dyslexia. This supports the usefulness of self-assessment of dyslexia as a valid alternative to diagnostic test batteries.

Tamboer, P., Vorst, H.C.M., Oort, F.J., 2013 Identifying dyslexia in adults: an iterative method using predictive value of item scores and self-report questions link to pdf

Methods for identifying dyslexia in adults vary widely between studies. Researchers have to decide how many tests to use, which tests are considered to be the most reliable, and how to determine cut-off scores. The aim of this study was to develop an objective and powerful method for diagnosing dyslexia. We took various methodological measures, most of which are new compared to previous methods. We used a large sample of Dutch first-year psychology students, we considered several options for exclusion and inclusion criteria, we collected as many cognitive tests as possible, we used six independent sources of biographical information for a criterion of dyslexia, we compared the predictive power of discriminant analyses and logistic regression analyses, we used both sum scores and item scores as predictor variables, we used self-report questions as predictor variables, and we retested the reliability of predictions with repeated prediction analyses using an adjusted criterion. We were able to identify 74 dyslexic and 369 nondyslexic students. For 37 students, various predictions were too inconsistent for a final classification. The most reliable predictions were acquired with item scores and selfreport questions. The main conclusion is that it is possible to identify dyslexia with a high reliability, although the exact nature of dyslexia is still unknown. We therefore believe that this study yielded valuable information for future methods of identifying dyslexia in Dutch as well as in other languages, and that this would be beneficial for comparing studies across countries.

Tamboer, P., Vorst, H.C.M., Oort, F.J., 2014 Five describing factors of dyslexia link to pdf

Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A sample of 446 students (63 with dyslexia) completed a large test battery and a large questionnaire. Five factors were found in both the test battery and the questionnaire. These 10 factors loaded on 5 latent factors (spelling, phonology, shortterm memory, rhyme/confusion, and whole-word processing/complexity), which explained 60% of total variance. Three analyses supported the validity of these factors. A confirmatory factor analysis fit with a solution of five factors (RMSEA = .03). Those with dyslexia differed from those without dyslexia on all factors. A combination of five factors provided reliable predictions of dyslexia and nondyslexia (accuracy >90%). We also looked for factorial deficits on an individual level to construct subtypes of dyslexia, but found varying profiles. We concluded that a multiple cognitive deficit model of dyslexia is supported, whereas the existence of subtypes remains unclear. We discussed the results in relation to advanced compensation strategies of students, measures of intelligence, and various correlations within groups of those with and without dyslexia.

Tanner, K., 2009 Adult dyslexia and the 'conundrum of failure' link to pdf

While there is a wealth of literature about childhood dyslexia, adult dyslexia remains relatively undocumented, particularly from a lived perspective. This paper focuses on the ‘deficit perspective of failure’, as highlighted in current literature, which addresses issues confronting adults with dyslexia. Within this theme of failure a number of subtypes have been identified. This paper contextualises these subtypes around the perceptions of individuals involved in a tertiary course for adults with dyslexia. The paper demonstrates what the author has identified as a ‘conundrum of failure’ that has influenced the perceptions of many adults with dyslexia, including their life choices. Its prevalence in the literature and the lived experiences of the research subjects highlight the need for societal, institutional and attitudinal change.

Tariq, V.N., Cochrane, A.C., 2003 Reflections on keyh skills: implementing change in a traditional university link to pdf

This paper begins by providing an overview of the UK's national key skills agenda, with a view to placing in context the subsequent description of the formulation and implementation of a skills policy by a traditional, research-led university, namely Queen's University Belfast. The paper is written from the perspective of two members of academic staff who spent two years on part-time secondment as Skills Development Officers. We outline how a number of small-scale investigative projects informed our thoughts and decisions, how aspects of management and internal politics influenced the formulation of a university skills policy, and how a series of initiatives evolved that were aimed at supporting staff and students in implementation of that policy. We conclude that while external pressures to explicitly develop students' key skills within higher education are intense, institutions need to reflect more on the implications of any policies and strategies for implementation they impose upon their staff. Within traditional institutions progress can be slow, with the pace of change influenced not only by the level of support and drive from senior management, but also dependent upon the knowledge, experience, energy and enthusiasm of academic 'champions' who have a balanced view of the skills agenda.

Taylor, J., House, B., 2010 An exploration of identity, motivations and concerns of non-traditionsl students at different states of higher education link to pdf

Non-traditional students are increasingly making up a larger part of the student body and can include students from various groupings, for example, differentiated by ethnicity, socio-economic class (SEC), disability, residential location or age. The aim of this initial exploratory study was to investigate whether and how the motivations, identity and concerns of different types of non-traditional psychology students differed from each other. Previous research has either investigated all types of non-traditional students together with no breakdown according to specific category, or focused on one category (e.g. mature versus non-mature students). A questionnaire was sent to a cross-sectional sample of pre-University, first-year, second-year, third year and graduate students to collect mainly qualitative data. Questions addressed a number of areas: motivation to go to University; post-University aspirations; identity; and student concerns. There were interesting gender differences with regard to the motivations to go to University; with males more likely to give reasons relating to intrinsic factors and females stating extrinsic factors, supporting previous research. The findings relating to identity showed that mature students were more negative in their self-descriptions, but for second-year and third-year students, mature students were more likely to indicate changes to their identity since joining University. It will be interesting in the next stage of planned research to track changes in identity over time; as this study provides just a snapshot at each stage of the degree. The findings showed that student concerns frequently related to the reason for their being classified as a non-traditional student. For example: financial concerns were more often stated by those from lower socio-economic backgrounds; and mature students were more concerned about academic issues, while non-mature students expressed more social concerns. Although these initial observations require further exploration with a larger sample, they are discussed with regard to their implications for the level and type of pastoral support available to different types of non-traditional students. This study is the first stage of a longitudinal project, and further work suggested from these results will be investigated over the remaining two years of the project. For example, students participating in this study will be tracked, a further group of traditional-entry students will be recruited for comparison and further measures will be collected relating to extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.

Taylor, M., Duffy, S., Hughes, G., 2007 The use of animation in highed education teaching to support students with dyslexia link to pdf

Purpose – The purpose of the research reported in this paper was to examine the potential usefulness of animated learning materials for supporting students with dyslexia in a UK higher education setting.
Design/methodology/approach – An experiment was conducted with a set of 13 undergraduate computing students with dyslexia and a control group of 13 non-dyslexic undergraduate computing students.
Findings – Overall it appeared that appropriate animated learning materials were perceived as being more useful than equivalent static learning materials by both the students with dyslexia and the control group of non-dyslexic students. However, the control group appeared to find them more useful than the students with dyslexia.
Research limitations/implications – Although the experiment reported in this paper was small in scale it did appear to indicate that animated learning materials may potentially be useful for undergraduate students with (and without) dyslexia.
Originality/value – There appears to have been little research done in the area of animated learning materials in a higher education setting and in particular with regard to students with dyslexia.

Terras, M.M., Thompson, L.C., Minnis, H., 2009 Dyslexia and psycho-social functioning: an exploratory study of the role of self-esteem and understanding link to pdf

Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the Self- Perception Profile for Children (Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children. University of Denver, CO: Denver; 1985) and psycho-social adjustment using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 1997; 38: 581–586) and examined child and parent understanding, attitudes and the perceived impact of reading difficulties on daily life.

Terzi, L., 2005 Beyond the Dilemma of Difference: The capability approach to disability and special educational needs link to pdf

In her recent pamphlet Special Educational Needs: a new look (2005) Mary Warnock has called for a radical review of special needs education and a substantial reconsideration of the assumptions upon which the current educational framework is based. The latter, she maintains, is hindered by a contradiction between the intention to treat all learners as the same and that of responding adequately to the needs arising from their individual differences. The tension highlighted by Warnock, which is central to the debate in special and inclusive education, is also referred to as the ‘dilemma of difference’. This consists in the seemingly unavoidable choice between, on the one hand, identifying children’s differences in order to provide for them differentially, with the risk of labelling and dividing, and, on the other, accentuating the ‘sameness’ and offering common provision, with the risk of not making available what is relevant to, and needed by, individual children. In this paper, I argue that the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen provides an innovative and important perspective for re-examining the dilemma of difference in significant ways. In particular, I maintain that reconceptualising disability and special needs through the capability approach makes possible the overcoming of the tension at the core of the dilemma of difference, whilst at the same time inscribing the debate within an ethical, normative framework based upon justice and equality.

Thalheimer, W., Cook, S. 2002 How to calculate effect sizes from published research articles: a simplified methodology link to pdf

This article provides a simplified methodology for calculating Cohen's d effect sizes from published experiments that use t-tests and F-tests. Accompanying this article is a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet to speed your calculations. Both the spreadsheet and this article are available as free downloads at www.work-learning.com/effect_sizes.htm.

Thompson, C., Bacon, A.M., Auburn, T., 2015 Dyslexic identities in online forum postings link to pdf

This study examined unsolicited postings to a dyslexia-dedicated online discussion forum to explore how people with dyslexia positioned themselves in relation to three socially-available personal identities: learning-disabled, differently-enabled and socially-disabled. A thematic analysis of forum contributions showed that although identities were to an extent malleable, those individuals who constructed themselves as differently-enabled celebrated their dyslexia-related abilities. Other contributors felt constrained to adopt disabled identities in some contexts, particularly educational settings. Dyslexia was perceived as negatively construed within a society which promotes literacy as an essential aspect of educational and social competence and where learning differences are poorly tolerated. In addition, this study highlights the potential of online forum contributions to investigate the personal perspectives of people with dyslexia.

Thomson, M.E., 1999 Subtypes of dyslexia: a teching artefact? link to pdf

Two ways of subtyping in dyslexia will be examined, namely visual/auditory (or ‘dyseidetic’/‘dysphonetic’) and phonological/surface. The conventional view is that phonological dyslexics have difficulty with non-words but are relatively stronger at real words, whereas the surface dyslexic can manage non-words but has difficulty with irregular words. When errors were classified into ‘visual’ and ‘auditory’, it was found in the case of 68 dyslexic children that after a 2-year period of tuition there was a change in the ratio of ‘visual’ errors to ‘auditory’ errors—the proportion of ‘auditory’ errors decreasing markedly. Also, when suitable regular words, non-words and irregular words were given to 58 dyslexic children and to 58 younger children matched for reading age, in neither group did the pattern of results give any significant support for classifying dyslexic children into ‘phonological dyslexics’ or ‘surface dyslexics’. A more economical hypothesis, which explains both sets of results, is that the observed changes reflect the instruction which the children had received. The alternative hypothesis, namely that there is some kind of ‘cognitive substrate’ which remains unchanged whatever the kind of teaching, was not supported by the data.

Tien, H.C., 1971 Hyperlexia, hypolexia or dyslexia? link to pdf

The Silberbergs introduced the concept of hyperlexia in 1967. Their concept is embodied in the observation, &dquo;In essence, many of the hyperlexic children we saw were able to call words by sight with little or no comprehension of them.&dquo; They further observe that &dquo;hyperlexic children with the most exaggerated discrepancies between their general language functioning are very remindful of the idiot savant.&dquo; The Silberbergs have done studies regarding dyslexia and hyperlexia (Silberberg & Silberberg, 1967, 1969), for several years, and are calling attention to a central issue: &dquo;The major question to be confronted is that raised by viewing reading as a physiological variant, as opposed to the more popular view that there is relative equal potential for reading in all children, and that it is the responsibility of the teacher to reach it.&dquo; The concept of hyperlexia is a useful one, for it points out that the ability to read cannot be equated with other factors of intellectual functioning. Reading ability is a factor of intelligence, but not the factor of intelligence. For this reason, the WISC with its multifactorial structure across both verbal and nonverbal subtests is a good intelligence test. The idea that the ability to read is not synonymous with intelligence is not new. What is new here is the concept of hyperlexia, i.e., the ability to read material above the ability to comprehend it. The development of science is always progressive. If the Silberberg postulate of hyperlexia is real, then it becomes necessary to postulate the idea of hypolexia, so as not to confuse the latter physiological

Tinklin, T., Riddell, S., Wilson, A., 2004 Policy and provision for disabled students in higher education in Scotland and England: the current state of play (2004) link to pdf

Higher education in the UK has been through a period of major change since the mid-1980s. A massive expansion in the number of students has been coupled with a reduction in the unit of resource, increased inter-institutional competition and greater accountability. Within this demanding context, pressure has also been applied to institutions to improve accessibility for disabled people, through funding council mechanisms, quality assurance procedures and, more recently, changes in legislation. Drawing on the ®ndings of an ESRC-funded research project, Disabled students and multiple policy innovations in higher education, involving a survey of higher education institutions, the article describes and discusses the current state of policy and provision for disabled students in higher education in Scotland and England. It concludes that, while there are de®nite signs of progress in the development of provision for disabled students, many areas need much further attention. A particular area of concern is teaching and learning. Effecting real change in this area means addressing questions which challenge conventional notions of effective teaching and learning practice. It is argued that improvements in provision for disabled students in this area would mean improvements for all students. Disability is still seen as a fairly distinct policy area, mainly addressed by student support services. Further signi®cant progress can only be made if disability is embedded into all institutional policies and procedures. Its relocation, particularly in the area of teaching and learning, however, will demand a signi®cant commitment on the part of all institutions.

Tonnessen, F.E., 1997 How can we best define 'dyslexia'? link to pdf

Diverse needs and purposes determine the way ‘dyslexia’ is defined. Some traditional definitions are presented and discussed briefly. Some logical requirements for definitions are also presented and discussed briefly. The main aim of the article is to suggest guidelines and criteria for how we should formulate and evaluate definitions of ‘dyslexia’. A major conclusion is that proposed definitions should be formulated and treated as hypotheses.

Towndrow, P.A., Koh, C., Tan, H.S. (Eds), 2008 Motivation and Practice for the Classroom link to pdf
  • Motivation theory and engaged learning - McInerney, D.M., Liem, A.D.
  • How can what we know about motivation to teach improve the quality of initial teacher education and its practicum? - Sinclair, C.
  • Implications of 21st century curriculum reforms on classroom practice: Assessment to support student motivation and learning - Timmins, A.
  • The academic motivation of boys and girls in high school settings - Vallance, R.J.
  • Motivation of high and low achievers in China over time - Yeung, A.S. et al
  • Promiting intrinsic motivation in PE: The role of beilefs, goals and self-determination - Chee, K.J.W., Woon, C.L.
  • Extrinsic reinforcers as a critical component of education for motivating students with special needs - Healey, J.B.
  • Co-constructing classroom environments that improve academic outcomes - Arnold, L.S., Walker, R.
  • Attribution theory and the improvement of students' motivational styles in classroom contexts... - Koh, C.
  • Perceived motivation, observed manifestation: Learning English in Japanese high schools - Fraser, S
  • The importance of perceived needs satisfaction: A look at polytechnic students' motivation - Woon, C.L., Chye, S.
  • Adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns... - Towndrow, P.A.
  • Shy online learners: Strategies to motivate online interaction - Fang, L.
  • Learning and motivational aspects of using interactive digital media - Tan, H.S.
  • Trainor, A., 2002 Self-determination for students with learning disabilitieis: Is it a universal value? link to pdf

    Teaching students with learning disabilities to be self-determining during postsecondary transition planning is considered bene®cial for students. Few self-determination studies, however, have focused on the impact students’ cultural identities may have on the practice of self-determination during transition planning. A review of self-determination literature is presented and includes concept de®nition, characteristics, and example components of model programs. Additionally, multicultural special education literature helps frame the need to consider the interplay between programs that promote self-determination and culturally and linguistically diverse learners. Qualitative research methods, used with student participants, have the potential to inform preferred practices as well as research gaps in special education by capturing how diverse students respond to self-determination during postsecondary transition planning.

    Trammell, J., 2009 Postsecondary students and disability stigma: development of hte postsecondary student survey of disability-related stigma link to pdf

    Few instruments or studies have been designed to measure the degree of stigmatization experienced by college and University students with disabilities. Yet, many researchers acknowledge through qualitative studies and other forms of experiential data that postsecondary students with disabilities do in fact encounter significant stigma effects. This study focused on the development, testing, and preparation for wider use of a Likert-type survey to measure self-reported degrees of stigmatization in college students with self-disclosed disabilities. The development of the Postsecondary Student Survey of Disability-Related Stigma (PSSDS) is part of a growing post-ADA effort to reduce stigma and make postsecondary education more accessible for students with disabilities.

    Trautwein, U., Ludtke, O., 2006 Self-esteem, academic self-concept and achievement: How the learning environment moderates the dynamics of the self-concept link to pdf

    The authors examine the directionality of effects between global self-esteem, domain-specific academic self-concepts, and academic achievement. Special emphasis is placed on learning environments as potential moderators of the direction of these effects. According to the meritocracy principle presented here, so-called bottom-up effects (i.e., self-esteem is influenced by academic self-concept) are more pronounced in meritocratic learning environments than in ego-protective learning environments. This hypothesis was examined using a three-wave cross-lagged panel design with a large sample of 7th graders from East and West Germany, a total of 5,648 students who were tested shortly after German reunification. Reciprocal effects were found between self-esteem, academic self-concept, and academic achievement. In conformance with the meritocracy principle, support for bottom-up effects was stronger in the meritocratic learning environment.

    Treiblmaier, H., Filzmoser, P., 2009 Benefits from using continuous rating scales in online survey research link to pdf

    The usage of Likert-type scales has become widespread practice in current IS research. Those scales require individuals to choose between a limited number of choices, and have been criticized in the literature for causing loss of information, allowing the researcher to affect responses by determining the range, and being ordinal in nature. The use of online surveys allows for the easy implementation of continuous rating scales, which have a long history in psychophysical measurement but were rarely used in IS surveys. This type of measurement requires survey participants to express their opinion in a visual form, i.e. to place a mark at an appropriate position on a continuous line. That not only solves the problems of information loss, but also allows for applying advanced robust statistical analyses. In this paper we use a real-world sample and a simulation to illustrate how noise impacts our data set. A noise level of 10% has only a small effect on both classical and robust estimates, but when 20% of noise is added, the classical estimators become severely distorted. Continuous rating scales in combination with robust estimators turn out to be an effective tool to reduce the impact of noise in surveys.

    Tuckman, B.W., 1991 The development and concurrent validity of the procrastination scale link to pdf

    The purpose of this study was ato develop a self-report measuare of procrastination tendencies and to investigate its relationship to a behavioural measure of procrastination and to a self-report measure of general self-efficacy. In a pilot study the 72-item scale in a 4-point Likery-type response format was developed and administered to 50 college juniors and seniors. A factor analysis of the results yielded two factors which formed the basis for reducing the scale to 35 items with a resulting reliability of 0.90 ...
    ... in a subsequent study of 183 college students a factor analysis of scores on the 35-item scale yielded a single-factor structure and a condensed scale of 16 items with a reliability of 0.86. This shortened version of the procrastination scale was recommended for use as a means of detecting students who may tend to procrastinate in the completion of college requirements.

    Uitto. A., 2014 Interests, attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs explaining upper-secondary schools students' orientation towards biology-related careers link to pdf

    The aim of the study was to discover the contribution of students' interest in school biology, as well as their self-efficacy and attitudes towards different science subjects and mathematics when explaining students' orientation towards biology-related careers at upper-secondary school. The data of 321 K-11 students (49 % women) were analyzed. Human biology and gene technology was the most interesting topics of biology among the students. The students' self-efficacy belief was highest in geography and lowest in mathematics. Male students had higher self-efficacy in mathematics and science subjects, but in biology, no gender difference was found. Self-efficacy in biology and geography intercorrelated, as did self-efficacy in mathematics, physics, and chemistry. Regression analysis revealed that interest and self-efficacy in biology and positive attitudes to biology as school subjects explained girls' orientation towards a biology-related career, as did low self-efficacy in physics and geography. For boys, only interest in biology, positive attitudes to biology as a school subject, and self-efficacy in biology explained their biology-related career orientation. The students' attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs in science subjects should be taken into account in secondary school biology education, because gender stereotypes and low self-efficacy beliefs may affect students' future career plans.

    Upton, D., Adams, S., 2005 Individual differences in online learning (Academic Confidence Scale) link to pdf

    Online learning is becoming ever more important in higher education today. Whilst there is extensive evidence of the benefits of online learning there is less evidence on the types of students that benefit. This study aimed to explore if any variables could predict success and engagement with an online module. A sample of psychology students completed a series of questionnaires prior to undertaking a specially developed online health psychology module. Questionnaires comprised an: academic confidence scale; a computer self-efficacy scale; and a learning styles questionnaire. Reported differences in student performance on, engagement with, and evaluation of, the module related to these variables were limited. However, a relationship between deep learning and a preference for online learning compared to traditional lectures, and a negative relationship between strategic learning style and module design was reported. Overall it appears as if online learning can be accessed by most and there are no indications of one group of students performing inequitably better or worse than others.

    Usher, E.L., Pajares, F., 2006 Sources of academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of entering middle school students link to pdf

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Bandura’s (1997) hypothesized sources of self-efficacy on the academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of entering middle school students (ND263) and to explore whether these sources differ as a function of gender, reading ability, and race/ethnicity. For the full sample, mastery experience, vicarious experience, social persuasions, and physiological state independently predicted academic and self-regulatory self-efficacy, with mastery experience proving the strongest predictor. Mastery experience and social persuasions predicted girls’ academic and self-regulatory self-efficacy, whereas mastery and vicarious experiences predicted these self-beliefs for boys. African American students’ mastery experiences and social persuasions predicted their academic self-efficacy. Mastery experience did not predict the self-efficacy beliefs of low-achieving students. Findings support and refine the theoretical tenets of Bandura’s social cognitive theory.

    Usher, E.L., Pajares, F., 2008 Sources of self-efficacy in school: critical review of the literature and future directions link to pdf

    The purpose of this review was threefold. First, the theorized sources of selfefficacybeliefs proposed by A. Bandura (1986) are described and explained,including how they are typically assessed and analyzed. Second, findingsfrom investigations of these sources in academic contexts are reviewed andcritiqued, and problems and oversights in current research and in conceptualizationsof the sources are identified. Although mastery experience is typicallythe most influential source of self-efficacy, the strength and influence ofthe sources differ as a function of contextual factors such as gender, ethnicity,academic ability, and academic domain. Finally, suggestions are offered tohelp guide researchers investigating the psychological mechanisms at workin the formation of self-efficacy beliefs in academic contexts.

    Valas, H., 1999 Students with learning disabilities and low-achieving students: peer acceptance, loneliness, self-esteem and depression link to pdf

    The present study focuses on the following questions: (a) Are students with learning disabilities (LD) and low-achieving students (LA), when controlling for age and gender, less accepted by peers, do they feel more lonely, do they have lower self-esteem, and do they feel more depressed than NLD and NLA students? (b) Does low achievement per se or does selection into special education programs or special class placement of students with LD affect these students’ psychological adjustment? Two analyses were conducted to elucidate these questions. Concerning the first question, the analysis was based on a sample of 1,434 4th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students drawn from regular school classes. It revealed that students with LD compared with NLD and NLA students were less accepted by peers, had lower self-esteem, and felt more lonely. LA students compared with NLD and NLA students were less accepted by peers, had lower self-esteem, and were more depressed. Concerning the second question, the analysis was based on a subsample of 276 LD and LA students. It revealed that, when controlling for age and gender, and holding achievement in reading, writing, arithmetic, and intelligence constant, LD students compared with LA students were less depressed but were less accepted by peers and felt lonelier. Thus, besides the effects of low academic achievement, to be labeled “a student with LD” may have negative effects primarily on peer acceptance and directly and indirectly on feelings of loneliness, particularly in primary school.

    Valdois, S., Bosse, M-L., Tainturier, M-J., 2004 The cognitive deficits responsible for developmental dyslexia: Review of evidence for a selective visual attentional disorder link to pdf

    There is strong converging evidence suggesting that developmental dyslexia stems from a phonological processing deficit. However, this hypothesis has been challenged by the widely admitted heterogeneity of the dyslexic population, and by several reports of dyslexic individuals with no apparent phonological deficit. In this paper, we discuss the hypothesis that a phonological deficit may not be the only core deficit in developmental dyslexia and critically examine several alternative proposals. To establish that a given cognitive deficit is causally related to dyslexia, at least two conditions need to be fulfilled. First, the hypothesized deficit needs to be associated with developmental dyslexia independently of additional phonological deficits. Second, the hypothesized deficit must predict reading ability, on both empirical and theoretical grounds. While most current hypotheses fail to fulfil these criteria, we argue that the visual attentional deficit hypothesis does.

    Vellutino, F.R., Fletcher, J.M., Snowling, M.J., Scanlon, D.M. 2004 Specific reading disability (dyslexia): what have we learned in the past four decades? link to pdf

    We summarize some of the most important findings from research evaluating the hypothesized causes of specific reading disability (_dyslexia_) over the past four decades. After outlining components of reading ability, we discuss manifest causes of reading difficulties, in terms of deficiencies in component reading skills that might lead to such difficulties. The evidence suggests that inadequate facility in word identification due, in most cases, to more basic deficits in alphabetic coding is the basic cause of difficulties in learning to read. We next discuss hypothesized deficiencies in readingrelated cognitive abilities as underlying causes of deficiencies in component reading skills. The evidence in these areas suggests that, in most cases, phonological skills deficiencies associated with phonological coding deficits are the probable causes of the disorder rather than visual, semantic, or syntactic deficits, although reading difficulties in some children may be associated with general language deficits. Hypothesized deficits in general learning abilities (e.g., attention, association learning, cross-modal transfer etc.) and low-level sensory deficits have weak validity as causal factors in specific reading disability. These inferences are, by and large, supported by research evaluating the biological foundations of dyslexia. Finally, evidence is presented in support of the idea that many poor readers are impaired because of inadequate instruction or other experiential factors. This does not mean that biological factors are not relevant, because the brain and environment interact to produce the neural networks that support reading acquisition. We conclude with a discussion of the clinical implications of the research findings, focusing on the need for enhanced instruction.

    Vinegrad, M.D., 1994 Revised Adult Dyslexia Checklist link to pdf

    This is the original document developed from research by Vinegrad on which all recent adult dyslexia checklists appear to be based.

    Vrugt, A.J., Langereis, M.P., Hoogstraten, J., 1997 Academic self-efficacy and malleability of relecant capabilities as predictors of exam performance link to pdf

    In accordance with Wood and Locke's (1987) findings, the 1st study was based on the prediction that academic self-efficacy (ASE) and personal goals of psychology freshmen (N = 438) would contribute to exam performance. Although the results supported this prediction, they were less strong than those of Wood and Locke. The timing of the ASE measurement appeared to be relevant. In the 2nd study, the authors predicted that self-efficacy appraisals, together with beliefs concerning the malleability of ability, would influence exam performance and the attribution of failure to lack of talent. The participants with high self-efficacy appraisals and strong malleability beliefs ascribed failure less to lack of talent than those with low self-efficacy appraisals and weak malleability beliefs did. This difference occurred between participants with high and low intelligence. Differences between the exam scores occurred only in the high-intelligence group: The exam performance of the participants with high self-efficacy appraisals and strong malleability beliefs was better than that of the participants with low self-efficacy appraisals and weak malleability beliefs.

    Walker, C.O., Greene, B.A., Mansell, R.A., 2006 Identification with academics, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation and self-efficacy as predictors of cognitive engagement link to pdf

    Examined were several theoretically important relations among motivational characteristics of students that are malleable, or changeable with intervention. The motivational construct identification with academics, which includes perceptions of belonging and valuing within an academic context, was investigated along with intrinsic/ extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as a predictors of cognitive engagement with 191 college students. Consistent with theoretical predictions, intercorrelations among measures of identification with academics, selfefficacy, and intrinsic motivation were all positive, as were the correlations of those three variables with meaningful cognitive engagement. Those three variables were also negatively correlated with a measure of amotivation and not related to a measure of extrinsic motivation. Path analysis demonstrated that self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and academic identification each contributed uniquely to the prediction of meaningful cognitive engagement. Only extrinsic motivation predicted shallow cognitive engagement.

    Warmington, M., Stothard, S.E., Snowling, M.J., 2013 Assessing dslexia in higher education: the York adult assessment battery revisited link to pdf

    Although there are a number of standardised measures to assess dyslexia in children, there are comparatively fewer instruments suitable for the assessment of dyslexia in adults. Given the growing number of students entering UK higher education institutions, there is a need to develop reliable tools for assessing the additional needs of those with dyslexia and related difficulties. This study reports data from a revised version of the York Adult Assessment: An Assessment Battery for Dyslexia Screening in Higher Education. The current York Adult Assessment-Revised (YAA-R) is an assessment battery consisting of tests of reading, spelling, writing and phonological skills. Data from a normative sample of 106 adults without dyslexia and a validation sample of 20 adults with dyslexia illustrate significant group differences on the tests comprising the YAA-R. Additionally, the YAA-R has good discriminatory power yielding 80% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Taken together, the YAA-R is a suitable test battery for the assessment and identification of dyslexia in university students.

    Waugh, R.F., 1999 Approaches to studying for students in higher education: A Rasch measurement model analysis link to pdf

    Background. The revised Approaches to Studying Inventory (Entwistle & Tait, 1994) comprises 38 self-report items designed to measure student approaches to learning in a higher education context. A Rasch analysis (Waugh & Addison, 1998) using data from an Australian university showed that some improvements could be made. The inventory was further revised to include 40 attitude items and 40 corresponding behaviour items based on a Deep Approach, a Surface Approach, a Strategic Approach, Clarity of Direction in Studying and Academic Self-Confidence towards Studying. Aims. The aims were to create a new interval level scale, analyse its psychometric properties using a modern measurement model, the Extended Logistic Model of Rasch (Andrich, 1988a, 1988b; Rasch, 1980), and investigate the conceptual design of the inventory. Sample. The sample consisted of 369 students (mainly .rst year) from an Australian university and is basically a convenience sample. There are 83 (22.5%) undergraduates studying in Business, Education and Nursing; 161 (43.6%) undergraduates studying Health Science, 84 (22.8%) studying undergraduate Management; and 41 (11.1%) in 2nd year Nursing. Method. The data were analysed initially with the whole sample for the 40 attitude items and for the 40 behavioural items separately. Items not fitting the model were then discarded (12 attitude items and 12 behavioural items). The analysis was repeated using the 56 valid items together and the items of each of the .ve subscales separately (Deep Approach, Surface Approach, Strategic Approach, Lack of Direction in Studying and Academic Self-Confidence towards Studying). Results. Fifty-six of the 80 items form a good scale with satisfactory psychometric properties. Its conceptual design based on attitudes, behaviour and the five learning orientations is concerned. All the attitude items fall at an easier position on the scale than their corresponding behaviour items. Nineteen of the 20 items of the Strategic Approach subscale, 20 items of the Deep Approach subscale, 4 of the 20 items of the Surface Approach subscale, 4 of the 10 items of the Clarity of Direction in Studying subscale, and 9 of the 10 items of the Academic Self-Confidence towards Studying subscale, fit the model. Conclusions. The Extended Logistic Model of Rasch was useful in creating an interval level scale of student attitudes and behaviours towards studying, and for analysing its psychometric properties and conceptual design. The scale is concerned as involving attitudes and behaviours as a measure of a variable based on five orientations to learning. Attitudes are easier than their corresponding behaviours and the Rasch model helps to explain how behaviours are influenced by attitudes.

    Weijters, B., Cabooter, E., Schillewaert, N., 2010 The effect of rating scale format on response styles: the number of response categories and response category labels link to pdf

    Questionnaires using Likert-type rating scales are an important source of data in marketing research. Researchers use different rating scale formats with varying numbers of response categories and varying label formats (e.g., 7-point rating scales labeled at the endpoints, fully labeled 5-point scales, etc.) but have few guidelines when selecting a specific format. Drawing from the literature on response styles, we formulate hypotheses on the effect of the labeling of response categories and the number of response categories on the net acquiescence response style, extreme response style and misresponse to reversed items. We test the hypotheses in an online survey (N=1207) with eight experimental conditions and a follow-up study with two experimental conditions (N=226). We find evidence of strong effects of scale format on response distributions and misresponse to reversed items, and we formulate recommendations on the choice of a scale format.

    Weijters, B., Schillewaert, N., Geuens, M., 2004 Measurement bias due to to response styles: a structural equation model assessing the effect of modes of data-collection link to pdf
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    Wesson, C.J., Derre-Rendall, N.M., 2011 Self-beliefs and student goal achievement link to pdf

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students’ levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are internally set by ones’ self, is considered in relation to students’ academic confidence. Optimism was related to goal achievement in Study 1 but only when the goal was believed to be difficult to achieve; optimistic students achieved higher scores than pessimistic students. In Study 2 confidence was related to goal achievement; students with moderate levels of academic confidence were well calibrated in their grade predictions whereas those with high levels of academic confidence were overconfident in their grade predictions. The results are discussed in relation to student motivation.

    Williams, D.M., 2010 Outcome expectancy and self-efficacy: theoretical implications of an unresolbed contradiction link to pdf

    According to self-efficacy theory, self-efficacy—defined as perceived capability to perform a behavior—causally influences expected outcomes of behavior, but not vice versa. However, research has shown that expected outcomes causally influence self-efficacy judgments, and some authors have argued that this relationship invalidates self-efficacy theory. Bandura has rebutted those arguments saying that self-efficacy judgments are not invalidated when influenced by expected outcomes. This article focuses on a contradiction in Bandura's rebuttal. Specifically, Bandura has argued (a) expected outcomes cannot causally influence self-efficacy, but (b) self-efficacy judgments remain valid when causally influenced by expected outcomes. While the debate regarding outcome expectancies and self-efficacy has subsided in recent years, the inattention to this contradiction has led to a disproportionate focus on self-efficacy as a causal determinant of behavior at the expense of expected outcomes.

    Williams, W.M., Ceci, S.J., 1999 Accommodating learnig disabilities can bestow unfair advantages link to pdf

    Considers the treatment given to college students diagnosed with learning disabilities in the United States. Examples of accommodations given to special needs students; The questions of whether challenged students are given an unfair advantage and how the diagnosis is made; The issue of misdiagnosis and treatment of students considered to be slow learners. The effect of special consideration on other students;

    Willis, W.A., 2010 Background characteristics and academic factors associated with the academic behavioural confidence of international graduate students in Ohio's public institutions [PhD dissertation] link to pdf

    Most of the research conducted on international graduate students examines the problems and challenges they face in U.S. higher education settings resulting from cultural differences. This line of research has repeatedly indicated that international graduate students experience academic difficulties in U.S. higher education classrooms on the basis of culture. Yet, enrollment of international graduate students and their completion numbers continue to climb. Perhaps there is another reason, a more positive lens through which we could look, to provide an explanation as to why international students continue to excel in U.S. graduate schools. To date, there have been no well-established empirical data on academic behavioral confidence, Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions, background characteristics, and academic factors of international students in U.S. graduate classroom settings. This study of international graduate students seeks (a) to examine associations between background characteristics, academic factors, and academic behavioral confidence; and (b) to investigate the role that culture may have on the academic experiences of international graduate students in these classrooms.

    Wolff, U., Lundberg, I., 2002 The prevalence of dyslexia among art students link to pdf

    It is widely held opinion that dyslexia is associated with remarkably artistic creativity. Speculations on different brain structures and brain functions have been proposed as an explanation. Very few objective studies have been reported that confirm the conjectures on the relationship between dyslexia and artistic creativity. Two studies are reported on the prevalence of dyslexia among university students}one group of art students and one group of students from non-art disciplines. The admission to the art schools were extremely demanding, possibly implying that the students were genuinely talented, and that their choice of training did not reflect a compensation for failure in conventional academic fields. Art academy students reported significantly more signs of dyslexia than non-art university students. Objective testing showed that art students had significantly poorer phonological skills than non-art students. Thus, according to self-reports combined with objective testing, the incidence of dyslexia was far higher among art students.

    Wolff, U., Lundberg, I., 2002 A technique for group screening of dyslexia among adults link to pdf

    This paper reports on the development of a battery of phonological processing tasks to screen adults wiht dyslexia. The battery consisted of tasks tapping reverse spoonerisms, phonological choice, working memory and vocalbularly with confusable alternatives. A self-report questionnaire consisting of two scales, one examining symptoms of dyslexia and the other reading interests, was also constructed. All these tasks showed high discrimination between a group of adults with dyslexia and a control group all recruited from adult education centers. The tasks also roccerlated highly with word recognition. The results of the study show that it is possible to develop a sensitive battery of 'nonvocalized' tasks to screen adults with dyslexia on a group basis and that self-reports add to the screening. The group administration is both time-saving and cost-effective.

    Zakzanis, K.K., 2001 Statistics to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth: illustrative numerical examples and heuristic interpretation of effect size analysis for neuropsychological researchers link to pdf

    If, as neuropsychologists, we think of the relationship between brain and behavior as the same as that between truth and reality, we must be equipped with statistical procedures that are coherent in terms of what we measure and what it represents. I believe that this necessary statistical procedure is effect size analysis, and without it, I believe that we fail to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth when describing our neuropsychological research. Accordingly, I review here the standard calculations of commonly employed effect sizes in two group designs and show how to adjust some familiar (and perhaps not so familiar) formulae using illustrative numerical examples. I also put forth an argument to adopt Cohen's measure as an expression of effect size based on its apropos to neuropsychological research. It is also argued that the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect size should depend on context, and not on pre-established heuristic benchmarks. It is noted, however, that effect sizes greater than 3.0 (OL% < 5) might seem particularly appropriate when evaluating the sensitivity of neuropsychological tasks and in establishing test markers in neuropsychological disorders.

    Zeleke, S., 2004 Self-concepts of students with learning disabilities and their normally achieving peers: a review link to pdf

    In an attempt to test the assumption that children with learning disabilities (LD) have deficient selfconcepts, a number of studies have compared the self-concepts of students with learning disabilities and their normally achieving (NA) peers. The purpose of this paper is to review recent studies that investigated the academic, social and general self-concepts of students with LD and their NA peers and compare the results with those of a previous meta-analysis of relatively older studies, by Chapman. Consistent with earlier findings, results of the present review indicated that the academic self-concept of LD students is more negative than that of their NA peers. Unlike Chapman’s conclusion, however, the evidence is less clear for general self-concept. This is also true for social selfconcept. Because the evidence that shows no group differences outweighs that indicating better social and general self-concept scores for NA children, the conclusion that children with LD hold more negative social and general self-concepts than do NA children is not warranted.

    Zimmerman, B.J., 2008 Investigating self-regulation and motivation: historical background, methodological developments and future prospects link to pdf

    The topic of how students become self-regulated as learners has attracted researchers for decades. Initial attempts to measure self-regulated learning (SRL) using questionnaires and interviews were successful in demonstrating significant predictions of students' academic outcomes. The present article describes the second wave of research, which has involved the development of online measures of self-regulatory processes and motivational feelings or beliefs regarding learning in authentic contexts. These innovative methods include computer traces, think-aloud protocols, diaries of studying, direct observation, and microanalyses. Although still in the formative stage of development, these online measures are providing valuable new information regarding the causal impact of SRL processes as well as raising new questions for future study.

    Zimmerman, B.J., Bandura, A., Martinez-Pons, M., 1992 Self-motivation for academic attainment: the role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting link to pdf

    The causal role of students' self-efficacy beliefs and academic goals in self-motivated academit attainment was studied using path analysis procedures. Parental goal setting and students' self-efficacy and personal goals at the beginning of the semester served as predictors of students' final course grades at the beginning of the semester served as predictors of students' final course grades in social studies. In addition, their grades in a prior course in social studies were included in the analyses. A path model of four self-motivation variables and prior grades predicted students' final grades in social studies, R = 0.56. Students' beliefs in their efficacy for self-regulated learning affected their perveived self-efficacy for academic achievement, which in turn, influenced the academic goals they set for themselves and their final academic achievement. Students' prior grades were predictive of their parents' grade goals for them, which in turn were linked to the grade goals students set for themselves. These findings were interpreted in terms of the social cognitive theory of academic self-motivation.

    Zimmerman, B.J., 2000 Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn link to pdf

    During the past two decades, self-efficacy has emerged as a highly effective predictor of students' motivation and learning. As a performance-based measure of perceived capability, self-efficacy differs conceptually and psychometrically from related motivational constructs, such as outcome expectations, self-concept, or locus of control. Researchers have succeeded in verifying its discriminant validity as well as convergent validity in predicting common motivational outcomes, such as students' activity choices, effort, persistence, and emotional reactions. Self-efficacy beliefs have been found to be sensitive to subtle changes in students' performance context, to interact with self-regulated learning processes, and to mediate students' academic achievement.

    Zimmerman, B.J., 1989 A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning link to pdf

    Researchers interested in academic self-regulated learning have begun to study processes that students use to initiate and direct their efforts to acquire knowledge and skill. The social cognitive conception of self-regulated learning presented here involves a triadic analysis of component processes and an assumption of reciprocal causality among personal, behavioral, and environmental triadic influences. This theoretical account also posits a central role for the construct of academic self-efficacy beliefs and three self-regulatory processes: self-observation, self-judgment, and self-reactions. Research support for this social cognitive formulation is discussed, as is its usefulness for improving student learning and academic achievement.

    Zimmerman, B.J., 2010 Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview link to pdf

    IN AN ERA OF CONSTANT DISTRACTIONS in the form of portable phones, CD players, computers, and televisions for even young children, it is hardly surprising to discover that many students have not learned to self-regulate their academic studying very well. Consider the case of Tracy, a high school student who is infatuated with MTV. An important mid-term math exam is two weeks away, and she has begun to study while listening to popular music “to relax her.” Tracy has not set any study goals for herself—instead she simply tells herself to do as well as she can on the test. She uses no specific learning strategies for condensing and memorizing important material and does not plan out her study time, so she ends up cramming for a few hours before the test. She has only vague self-evaluative standards and cannot gauge her academic preparation accurately. Tracy attributes her learning difficulties to an inherent lack of mathematical ability and is very defensive about her poor study methods. However, she does not ask for help from others because she is afraid of “looking stupid,” or seek out supplementary materials from the library because she “already has too much to learn.” She finds studying to be anxiety-provoking, has little self-confidence in achieving success, and sees little intrinsic value in acquiring mathematical skill.

    Self-regulation researchers have sought to understand students like Tracy and to provide help in developing key processes that she lacks, such as goal setting, time management, learning strategies, self-evaluation, self-attributions, seeking help or information, and important self-motivational beliefs, such as self-efficacy and intrinsic task interest.