zoom controls
card indexrepository 1b
Collected journal articles resource: first authors Fa - Li
link to endnotewebfirst authors Ab - Ey link to repository 1a | first authors Lo - Pu link icon | first authors Ra - Zi link icon
Facione, P., 2011 Critical thinking: what it is and why it counts link to pdf

Not exactly an academic paper but a guide for students

Farrell, P., 2001 Special education in the last twenty years: have things really got better? link to pdf

... addressing three key themes related to the education of pupils with special educational needs: the role of categories in special education; the impact of legistlation on assessment procedures; and developments in inclusive education. His considered view is that progress towards more inclusive practice and an enhanced role for parents have brought about positive developments....

Feiler, A., Gibson, H., 1999 Threats to the inclusive movement link to pdf

... four key threats are explored: the lack of precision indefinitions of inclusion; the lack of research evidence; the tendency for some children to experience what is termed 'internal exclusion in schools;and the continuing inclination to label children...

Feldman, R.S., Saletsky, R.D., Sullivan, J., Theiss, A., 1983 Student locus of control and response to expectations about self and teacher link to pdf

Subjects with either an internal or external locus of control were used to investigate the relationship between locus of control and responsivity to expectations regarding their own and their teacher's competence. Internal and external subjects, acting as students, were led to expect that they would perform well or poorly on a lesson and independently to expect that their teacher was competent or incompetent. After receiving a standardized lesson from a confederate acting as teacher, subjects' attitudes and performance were assessed. As predicted, internal subjects were more receptive to the expectation regarding self than external subjects. In contrast, the teacher expectation manipulation had no differential effect on internal and external subjects.

Feldman, D.B., Kubota, M., 2015 Hope, self-efficacy, optimism and academic achievement: distinguishing constructs and levels of specificity in prediction college grade-point average link to pdf

Research shows that Snyder's (1994) goal-directed hope construct predicts college GPA. However, studies have documented relativelyweak relationships between these variables, possibly because hope wasmeasured regarding goals generally, not academic-specific goals. Additionally, most studies have not compared variance accounted for in GPA by hope relative to other expectancy constructs. In a cross-sectional sample of 89 college students, we administer the Hope Scale, Domain Specific Hope Scale (academic subscale), General Self-Efficacy Scale, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised (optimism), among others. We test a pathanalytic model where academic-specific expectancies (e.g., academic hope, academic self-efficacy) have direct paths to GPA, and generalized expectancies (e.g., general hope, general self-efficacy) have paths to these academic-specific variables. A modified version of this hypothesized model demonstrated good fit. Generalized hope predicted academic-specific hope and academic self-efficacy, both of which then predicted GPA. Optimism and general self-efficacy did not predict academic-specific expectancy variables nor GPA.

Felton, R.H., Naylor, C.E., Wood, F.B., 1990 Neuropsychological profile of adult dyslexics link to pdf

One hundred and fifteen adults with well-documented childhood reading status underwent a series of neuropsychological tests including tests of memory, attention, phonological processing, and visual perceptual skills in an attempt to define the neuropsychological profile of dyslexia in adulthood. Compared to a normal nonreading disabled sample, subjects with a history of reading disability performed consistently poorer on most neuropsychological tests. However, after covarying for intelligence and socioeconomic status, only tests of rapid naming, phonological awareness, and nonword reading were significant discriminating measures. The hypothesis that deficits in phonological processing comprise the core cognitive deficits in adults with a history of reading disability was supported. Independent of current adult reading ability, measures of nonword reading. phonological awareness, and rapid naming serve as indicators of a childhood history of reading disability.

Ferla, J., Valcke, M., Cai, Y., 2009 Academic self-efficacy and academic self-concept: reconsidering structural relationships link to pdf

The current study investigates (1) whether academic (e.g. math) self-efficacy and academic self-concept represent two conceptually and empirically distinct psychological constructs when studied within the same domain, (2) the nature of the relationship existing between both self-constructs, (3) their antecedents, and (4) their mediating and predictive qualities for background variables such as gender and prior knowledge and outcome variables such as math performance, math interest, and math anxiety. Results indicate that (1) math self-efficacy and math self-concept do indeed represent conceptually and empirically different constructs, even when studied within the same domain, (2) students' academic self-concept strongly influences their academic self-efficacy beliefs, (3) academic self-concept is a better predictor (and mediator) for affective–motivational variables, while academic self-efficacy is the better predictor (and mediator) for academic achievement. These findings underpin the conceptual and empirical differences between both selfconstructs as suggested by Bong and Skaalvik [Bong, M., & Skaalvik, E.M. (2003). Academic self-concept and self-efficacy: How different are they really?. Educational Psychology Review, 15, 1–40.].

Ferla, J., Valcke, M., Schuyten, G., 2009 Student models of learning and their impact on study stategies link to pdf

This study aims to identify student models of learning (sets of ‘intra-student’ cognitions about learning) and to investigate their effect on study strategies. A two-step cluster analysis identified four student models of learning, representing students’ self-efficacy beliefs, learning conceptions, attributions for academic performance and assessment expectations. Results demonstrate that all identified student learning models combine either strong or weak control over learning beliefs with a specific mix of reproduction and meaning oriented assessment expectations. Results also indicate that student models of learning profoundly affect higher education students’ study strategies. Finally, the present study demonstrates that the effect of a particular cognition about learning depends on the other cognitions part of a student’s learning model.

Ferrari, J.R., 1992 Academic procrastination: personality correlates with Myers-Briggs Types, self-efficacy and academic locus of control link to pdf

Students wnrolled in associate degree programs at a small college were asked to comple the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as well as measures of academic procrastination, self-efficacy and locus of control .....

Findley, M.J., Cooper, H.M., 1983 Locus of control and academic achievement: A Literature review link to pdf

A quantitative review of research investigating the relationship between locus of control and academic achievement was conducted. Two basic conclusions resulted: (a) More internal beliefs are associated with greater academic achievement, and (b) the magnitude of this relation is small to medium. Characteristics of the participants in the reviewed studies (i.e., gender, age, race, and socioeconomic level) and the nature of the locus of control and academic achievement measures were investigated as mediators of the relation. The relation tended to be stronger for adolescents than for adults or children. Also, the relation was more substantial among males than among females. Finally, stronger effects were associated with specific locus of control measures and with standardized achievement or intelligence tests (as opposed to teacher grades).

Fletcher, J.M., 2009 Dyslexia: The evolution of a scientific concept link to pdf

In the past 25 years, scientific understanding of dyslexia and other learning disabilities has seen rapid progress in domains involving definition and classification, neuropsychological correlates, neurobiological factors, and intervention. I discuss this progress, emphasizing the central organizing influence of research and theory on basic academic skills on identification and sampling issues. I also emphasize how neuropsychological approaches to dyslexia have evolved and the importance of an interdisciplinary perspective for understanding dyslexia.

Florian, L., Rouse, M., Black-Hawkins, K., Jull, S., 2004 What can national data sets tell us about inclusion and pupil achievement? link to pdf

Recent developments in the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) have produced a national pupil database (NPD) that contains information about the attainments of individual pupils. Every child in the country has been allocated a unique pupil number (UPN), which means that the academic progress of individuals can be tracked over time. It is possible to combine data on attainment with the demographic i n f o rmation which is obtained from the pupil level annual schools census (PLA SC). These innovations make it possible to combine ‘value added’ information about pupil progress from one key stage of education to the next with data from the PLA SC, which contains pupil backgro u n d information, to produce a single matched data set. Thus the NPD and the PLASC are able to provide much of the necessary information to ex p l o re issues of individual pupil performance over their school careers. Notably, more specific information about the academic achievement of pupils who are described as having ‘special educational needs’ is now available. Lani Florian, lecturer in inclusion and special educational needs, Martyn Ro u s e , senior lecturer in inclusion and special educational needs, Kristine Black-Hawkins, senior re s e a rc h associate, and Stephen Jull, research associate, are all based at the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education. In this article, drawing on their work in the ‘Inclusion and Achievement Project’, they ex p l o re the problems and possibilities for re s e a rc h i n g issues of pupil achievement and inclusion through the use of these new national data sets.

Content 100

Frith, U., 1999 Paradoxes in the definition of dyslexia link to pdf

The definition and explanation of dyslexia have long been problematic. A causal modelling framework involving three levels of description—behavioural, cognitive and biological—can solve some seemingly intractable problems and confusions. Dyslexia can be defined as a neuro-developmental disorder with a biological origin and behavioural signs which extend far beyond problems with written language. At the cognitive level, putative causes of the behavioural signs and symptoms of the condition can be specified. These hypothetical deficits are subject to controversy, but serve as a basis for testable predictions at both the behavioural and biological levels. At all three levels, interactions with cultural influences occur. These influences have a major impact on the clinical manifestation of dyslexia, the handicap experienced by the sufferer, and the possibilities for remediation. When all these factors are considered together, paradoxes disappear and a satisfactory definition of dyslexia can be achieved.

Fuller, M., Bradley, A., Healey, M., 2004 Incorporating disabled students within and inclusive higher education environment link to pdf

This study investigated disabled students' perceptions and experiences of learning in a single university. The paper reports the views of disabled student volunteers with a range of impairments who were selected to discuss experiences of teaching and assessment that they commonly encountered. Four group interviews were organized in 2002, before the Disability Discriminants Act (DDA) part IV came on stream, in which disabled students were invited to re¯ect together on their experiences as learners at the case study university. In addition to teaching and assessment, the students also identi®ed issues to do with access to, and the use of, information as important in their learning experience. We conclude that further studies will need to adopt a more integrated approach to understanding disabled students' experiences as learners.

Fuller, M., Healey, M., Bradley, A., Hall, T., 2004 Barriers to learning: a systematic study of the experience of disabled students in one university link to pdf

This article reports the findings from a survey of all self-reported disabled students in a single UK higher education institution. Undertaken as the initial phase of a project that focuses upon students' experience of learning in higher education, it is one of the first systematic analyses to be undertaken of the experience that disabled students in higher education have of barriers to learning. The article reports both statistical data about the quality and variety of 173 students' experience of learning as well as qualitative comments from the students about learning and assessment. Analysis of the survey points to the need for attention to be paid to issues of parity and flexibility of provision and to staff development in making the 'reasonable adjustments' required by recent disability legislation.

Ghani, K.A., 2013 Working memory performance, learning and study strategies and learning styles of dyslexic and non-dyslexic adult learners link to pdf

Past research has shown that working memory is a good predictor of learning performance. The working memory processes determine an individuals' learning ability and capability. The current study was conducted to examine the: (a) differences in the working memory performance of dyslexic students in postsecondary institutions, (b) differences in dyslexic students' study strategies and learning styles, (c) differences in the working memory profiles of non-dyslexic university students based on their disciplines (science versus humanities), (d) differences between non-dyslexic science and humanities students in their study strategies and learning styles, (e) relationship between working memory and study skills and (f) hypothesised memory models that best fit the actual data gathered using structured equation modelling technique. Two separate studies were performed to address these aims. For Study 1, a group of 26 dyslexic individuals along with a group of 32 typical non-dyslexic students were assessed for their working memory and study skills performances. A significant difference in working memory was found between the two groups. The dyslexic group showed weaker performance in the verbal working memory tasks which concurs with previous findings. The result also provides support that weakness in the verbal working memory of dyslexic individuals still exist and persist into adulthood. Significant differences in the students' study skills were also identified. Dyslexic students reported to be more anxious and concerned about their academic tasks, lack in concentration and attention, less effective in selecting important materials during reading, using less test taking and time management strategies. Significant relationships were found between working memory component and selected study skills. Study 2 was conducted to investigate working memory differences and study skills of non-dyslexic students based on their disciplines. A sample of 168 university learners consisted of 82 sciences and 86 humanities students were recruited. Analysis of data revealed that students from the sciences disciplines show significantly weaker performance in the verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks. Results from both studies showed similarity in the working memory profiles of dyslexic and science students. Findings in both of the studies with regards to the working memory models and learning and study skills are discussed with practical implications and recommendations for future research.

Galaburda, A. M., LoTurco, J., Ramus, F., Fitch, R.H., Rosen, G.D., 2006 From genes to behaviour in developmental dyslexia link to pdf

All four genes thus far linked to developmental dyslexia participate in brain development, and abnormalities in brain development are increasingly reported in dyslexia. Comparable abnormalities induced in young rodent brains cause auditory and cognitive deficits, underscoring the potential relevance of these brain changes to dyslexia. Our perspective on dyslexia is that some of the brain changes cause phonological processing abnormalities as well as auditory processing abnormalities; the latter, we speculate, resolve in a proportion of individuals during development, but contribute early on to the phonological disorder in dyslexia. Thus, we propose a tentative pathway between a genetic effect, developmental brain changes, and perceptual and cognitive deficits associated with dyslexia.

Galbraith, A., Alexander, J., 2005 Literacy, self-esteem and locus of control link to pdf

In this article, Alison Galbraith and Joy Alexander use case studies of a group of primary school pupils to examine the efficacy of an integrated, eclectic approach to the teaching of literacy, including whether constructs such as self-concept and self-esteem have a bearing on academic achievement. Circle Time activities, interactive teaching methods and discussion based on the principles of Solution Focused Brief Therapy aim to improve self-esteem and internalise locus of control in children. Significant improvements in the reading scores of the target children are concurrently achieved with improved self-esteem and locus of control scores, suggesting the usefulness of the teacher acting simultaneously as instructor, scaffolder and iconoclast.

Gaylon, C.E., Blondin, C A., Yaw, J.S., Nalls, M.L., Williams, R.L., 2012 The relationship of academic self-efficacy to class participation and exam performance link to pdf

This study examined the relationship of academic self-efficacy to engagement in class discussion and performance on major course exams among students (N = 165) in an undergraduate human development course. Cluster analysis was used to identify three levels of academic self-efficacy: high (n = 34), medium (n = 91), and low (n = 40). Results indicated that high, medium, and low academic self-efficacy all significantly predicted levels of student participation and exam performance, but the directionality of group placement on the academic measures was different for students at the high self-efficacy level versus those at the low and mid self-efficacy levels. Cluster analysis was also used to divide students into high, medium, and low grade-point average (GPA). These groups did not differ significantly on either self-efficacy or class participation but did differ on exam performance. Within GPA levels, self-efficacy was most strongly related to class participation and exam performance at the highest level of GPA and least related at the lowest level of GPA.

Gerhardt, M.W., Brown, K.G., 2006 Individual differences in self-efficacy development: The effects of goal orientation and affectivity link to pdf

This study examined the moderating role of the individual differences of goal orientation and affectivity on self efficacy development. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicate that both positive and negative affectivity moderate the impact of an enactive mastery training program on efficacy development, with those higher in positive affectivity having greater change in self-efficacy as a result of training than those lower in positive affectivity, and those lower in negative affectivity having greater change in self-efficacy as a result of training than those higher in negative affectivity. The moderating impact of mastery and performance goal orientation appears to be much more complex, with initial levels of self-efficacy playing an important role in the interaction between goal orientation and efficacy development. Overall, results suggest self-efficacy development resulting from training varies depending on disposition of trainees and initial levels of efficacy.

Gifford, D.D., Briceno-Perriott, J., Mianzo, F., 2006 Locus of control: Academic achievement and retention in a sample of university first-year students link to pdf

Higher education administrators are seeking to identify additional effective student pre-college predictors of university academic success to utilize in an increasingly competitive admission environment. A study of more than 3,000 first-year students assessed a traditional pre-college predictor, the ACT, along with a new potential pre-college predictor, locus of control, to determine their effectiveness in predicting first-year student academic achievement as measured by end-of-first-year cumulative GPA. The results of the study indicated that first-year students who entered university with lower scores on the locus of control scale (internals) obtained significantly higher GPAs than those who scored higher (externals) on this same scale. Pre-college ACT scores also served as an effective predictor of student academic success as demonstrated by significantly higher cumulative GPAs at the end of the first year. In addition, this study found that first-year students retained to their sophomore year demonstrated a statistically higher GPA than those who were not retained.

Ghani, K.A., 2013 Working memory performance, learning and study strategies and learning styles of dyslexia and non-dyslexic adult learners link to pdf

Past research has shown that working memory is a good predictor of learning performance. The working memory processes determine an individuals' learning ability and capability. The current study was conducted to examine the: (a) differences in the working memory performance of dyslexic students in postsecondary institutions, (b) differences in dyslexic students' study strategies and learning styles, (c) differences in the working memory profiles of non-dyslexic university students based on their disciplines (science versus humanities), (d) differences between non-dyslexic science and humanities students in their study strategies and learning styles, (e) relationship between working memory and study skills and (f) hypothesised memory models that best fit the actual data gathered using structured equation modelling technique. Two separate studies were performed to address these aims. For Study 1, a group of 26 dyslexic individuals along with a group of 32 typical non-dyslexic students were assessed for their working memory and study skills performances. A significant difference in working memory was found between the two groups. The dyslexic group showed weaker performance in the verbal working memory tasks which concurs with previous findings. The result also provides support that weakness in the verbal working memory of dyslexic individuals still exist and persist into adulthood. Significant differences in the students' study skills were also identified. Dyslexic students reported to be more anxious and concerned about their academic tasks, lack in concentration and attention, less effective in selecting important materials during reading, using less test taking and time management strategies. Significant relationships were found between working memory component and selected study skills. Study 2 was conducted to investigate working memory differences and study skills of non-dyslexic students based on their disciplines. A sample of 168 university learners consisted of 82 sciences and 86 humanities students were recruited. Analysis of data revealed that students from the sciences disciplines show significantly weaker performance in the verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks. Results from both studies showed similarity in the working memory profiles of dyslexic and science students. Findings in both of the studies with regards to the working memory models and learning and study skills are discussed with practical implications and recommendations for future research.

Glazzard, J., Dale, K. 2013 Trainee teachers with dyslexia: personal narratives of resilience link to pdf

This paper tells the stories of two trainee teachers and their personal experiences of dyslexia. Both informants were English and training to be primary school teachers in England. Through drawing on their own experiences of education, the stories illustrate how dyslexia has shaped the self-concept, self-esteem and resilience of each informant. The narratives presented in this paper illustrate powerfully the ways in which teachers can have a positive or negative impact on the self-concepts of students with dyslexia. Both had been inspired by teachers they had met, and these positive role models had given them the confidence to pursue their own ambitions. However, both had encountered teachers who lacked empathy and patience, and these teachers had a detrimental impact on their self-concepts. For both of these trainee teachers, personal experiences of dyslexia also shaped their professional identities as teachers. Both trainees described themselves as caring and empathic teachers, suggesting that personal experiences of dyslexia had a positive impact on teacher professional identity.

Goldfreid, M.R., Robins, C., 1982 On the facilitation of self-efficacy link to pdf

This article begins by briefly considering the current theoretical and research status of self-efficacy theory, suggesting that self-efficacy expectations may provide us with a useful index of the extent to which certain learning experiences have been cognitively processed. Moreover, selfefficacy theory leads us in the direction of considering how individuals may actually go about encoding, storing, and retrieving corrective experiences, so as to alter self-efficacy expectations. This article discusses and illustrates procedural guidelines that may be useful in facilitating cognitive processing of efficacy information in the clinical context, whereby the role of the therapist becomes that of(a) aiding the client in discriminating between past and present behaviors, (b) helping the client to view changes from both an objective and a subjective vantage point, (c) helping the client to retrieve past success experiences, and (d) aligning the client's expectancies, anticipatory feelings, behaviors, objective consequences, and subsequent self-evaluations. The ultimate objective of these therapeutic strategies is to effect a lasting change in clients" self-schemata. Some of the clinically related research questions that need to be addressed are noted.

Gompel, M., 2005 Literacy skills of children with low vision link to pdf

This thesis is a study on the literacy skills of children with low vision. According to a report of Melief and Gorter (1998), in the Netherlands, the prevalence of visual impairment in children is 0.1 to 0.2 percent. This figure includes blind children, children with low vision, and multiply handicapped children. In the Netherlands, children are generally considered visually impaired, and therefore eligible for institutional support, if their functional vision is less than 3/10 and/or their visual field is less than 30o. In 1998, 2100 children were registered as being visually impaired. Those children were either attending special schools for visually impaired children, or went to regular schools but received outreaching support from one of the institutions for the visually impaired (Grevink, 1998). In this study, we concentrate on children with low vision but sufficient residual vision to read print. Braille reading is a different topic and beyond the scope of the research presented in this thesis. We also limit our study to children with normal cognitive abilities, because cognitive handicaps (although possibly related to the visual impairment) might confound the results. A final constraint of the research group is the age range. We will study the literacy skills of children with low vision in grades 1 to 6 of the primary school (equivalent to group 3 to 8 of the Dutch school system), because these are the grades in which literacy skills are taught. Information obtained from the three Dutch educational institutes for the visually impaired (Bartiméus, Convergo, and Visio) showed that approximately 635 of the children registered at one of the institutions as being visually impaired, met these criteria. Teachers and others who work with children with low vision often report that children with low vision do not attain a reading level comparable to that of sighted children.

Goode, J., 2007 'Managing' disabiliy: early experiences of university students with disabilities link to pdf

Recent UK legislation, operational from December 2006, places a duty on all public authorities, including higher education institutions, to actively promote equality of opportunity for people with disabilities. The university studied here has a number of initiatives in place to develop good practice in this area, but how do students themselves experience that provision? Research about people with disabilities has sometimes alienated them by failing to reflect their own perspectives. This study, explicitly aimed at incorporating students’ voices and using interview and video data, offers some insight into students’ experiences of the aids and obstacles to an inclusive learning environment at one university.

Goodley,D., 2001 'Learning difficulties': the social model of disability and impairment: challenging epistemologies link to pdf

Critical researchers enter into an investigation with their assumptions on the table, so no one is confused concerning the epistemological and political baggage they bring with them to the research site (Kincheloe & McLaren, 1998, p. 265). A theory of disability as oppression … recognises and, in the present context, emphasies the social origins of impairment. (Abberley, 1987, in Barton and Oliver, 1997, p176, my emphasis.) Identi. cation with the label of ‘learning dif. culties’1 has contradictory personal and political implications for people so-labelled. While this identi. cation has allowed people to organise collectively through the self-advocacy movement, pervasive understandings of ‘learning dif. culties’ that permeate many societal settings tend to be framed in ways that directly con. rm a personal tragedy model of disability and impairment. This paper argues for a reconsideration of impairment in relation to ‘learning dif. culties’, to challenge pervasive assumptions in relation to ‘learning dif. culties’—at the level of epistemology— and to construct four inclusive epistemological foundations. The . rst, deconstructing impairment, draws upon a body of literature that has exposed the social nature of diagnostic criteria and destabilised naturalised notions of ‘learning dif. culties’. The second, impairment, as storied, brings in the accounts of people with ‘learning dif. culties’ that locate impairment in, and as, personal and social narratives. Thirdly, reculturising impairment highlights emergent resilient cultures of people with ‘learning dif. culties’ that re-culturise impairment. Fourthly, epistemological impacts, grounds the analysis by calling for an attention to the ways in which assumptions about the origins of ‘learning dif. culties’ impact upon the treatment of people so-labelled.

Gore, P.A., 2006 Academic self-efficacy as a predictor of college outcomes: two incremental validity studies link to pdf

A growing body of literature supports the relationship between students’ self-efficacy beliefs for academic tasks and milestones and their academic performance. Not surprisingly, some researchers have investigated the role that academic selfefficacy beliefs play in predicting college success. Two incremental validity studies were conducted to determine the extent to which academic self-efficacy beliefs could account for variance in college outcomes beyond that accounted for by standardized test scores. Results suggest that academic self-efficacy beliefs predict college outcomes but that this relationship is dependent on when efficacy beliefs are measured, the types of efficacy beliefs measured, and the nature of the criteria used.

Greenbank, P., 2006 The evolution of government policy on widening participation link to pdf

This paper examines the evolution of government policy in England on widening participation. It traces government policy on widening participation in relation to social class from Robbins (1963) through Dearing (1997) to ‘The Future of Higher Education’ (2003) and the passing of the Higher Education Act (2004). The paper concludes that there is a lack of participation in policy formulation by certain key groups, particularly those directly affected by widening participation policy. In addition, although the government’s widening participation policy has generally progressed, it has done so within an overly bureaucratic system of control that fails to give higher education institutions the autonomy they need. There are also occasions when aspects of policy seem to be taking backward steps. Moreover,while the government adopts a rhetoric of strategic rationality, policy on widening participation often appears to be ad hoc, piecemeal and lacking a cohesive, evidence-based rationale. Finally, there are times when New Labour appears to lack the political will to implement radical policies.

Griffin, E., Pollak, D., 2009 Student experiences of neurodiversity in Higher Education: Insights fromthe BRAINHE project link to pdf

The number of students with identified learning differences (LDs) of all kinds is increasing in higher education. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 27 current and previous students with a range of specific LDs by means of semi-structured interviews, using a thematic approach. The findings revealed that participants shared many life experiences and preferences for learning irrespective of their type of LD. Participants generally held one of two views about their identity as ‘neurodiverse’: a ‘difference’ view—where neurodiversity was seen as a difference incorporating a set of strengths and weaknesses, or a ‘medical/deficit’ view—where neurodiversity was seen as a disadvantageous medical condition. The former view was associated with expressions of greater career ambition and academic self-esteem, while the latter view was associated more with processes for obtaining the Disabled Students’ Allowance. Many of the participants reported similar experiences in education and with university support; many did not feel adequately supported by their institutions. Recommendations are made for increased awareness training among lecturers and better liaison between university departments.

Haggis, T., 2006 Pedagogies for diversity: retaining critical challenge amidst fears of 'dumbing down' link to pdf

Growing concerns about retention and attrition rates in a mass and increasingly marketised higher education system have encouraged the idea that ‘meeting learner needs’ should be a key focus for institutional attention. It is suggested that this approach is unrealistic, however, because of the extent of the diversity which it attempts to respond to. An alternative response is to move away from the individualised focus on needs, deficits and ‘support’, towards a consideration of ‘activities, patterns of interaction and communication failures’, in relation to higher education pedagogical cultures. This move reconceptualises the idea of ‘barriers to learning’, attempting to understand how more subtle aspects of higher education pedagogical cultures may themselves be creating conditions which make it difficult, or even impossible, for some students to learn. Deliberately forging a middle path between conventional and radical approaches to pedagogy, the article attempts to identify examples of ‘older’ values and assumptions which may be positive and functional, and to separate these out from a number of other values and assumptions which, it is argued, may act to prevent students from being able to access new disciplinary worlds.

Hale, S., 2006 Widening Participation, equalizing opportunity? Higher Education's Mission Impossible link to pdf

Current government policy of increasing participation in higher education is justified on the grounds of individual benefit, the national economic interest and, most significantly, as part of a moral agenda of promoting equality of opportunity. This article examines a range of empirical findings in the light of ideas about equality and, in particular, the concept of ‘equality of opportunity’, and what these entail. It concludes that widening participation in higher education, at least as envisaged in current policy, cannot compensate for social and educational disadvantage, and is not only ineffectual in promoting equality of opportunity, but carries serious disbenefits.

Hall, E., Leat, D., Wall, K., Higgins, S., Edwards, G. 2006 Learning to learn: teacher research in the Zone of Proximal Development link to pdf

This article draws on an action research project in primary and secondary schools which was funded through the Campaign for Learning, and supported by Newcastle University with a focus on ‘Learning to Learn’. This is a potentially useful concept for teachers and academics as attempts are made to move beyond curriculum-driven and assessment-dominated education towards inclusive and lifelong learning. At the end of the academic years 2003–2004 and 2004–2005, a total of 43 teachers from schools involved in researching Learning to Learn completed questionnaires and were interviewed about the progress of their individual research projects in the context of the wider programme. They were asked to discuss issues of autonomy and control, expectations and motivation and how change was manifesting itself in their contexts. Clear messages about the need for teacher ownership of the research balanced with the need for scaffolding emerged from the analysis.

Hampton, N.Z., Mason, E., 2003 Learning disabilities, gender, sources of efficacy, self-efficacy beliefs and academic achievement in high school students link to pdf

This study examined the impact of gender, learning disability (LD) status, and sources of efficacy on self-efficacy beliefs and academic achievement in the concept of Bandura’s self-efficacy theory. Two hundred and seventy-eight high school students participated in the study. Structural equation modelling was used. The results revealed that LD status had indirect influence on self-efficacy via the source variable; gender did not have direct or indirect influences on self-efficacy; sources of efficacy had direct impact on self-efficacy, which in turn affected academic performance. The structural model fit the data well and explained 55% of the variance in academic achievement.

Harrison, A.G., Edwards, M.J., Parker, K.C.H., 2008 Identifying students feigning dyslexia: preliminary findings and strategies for detection link to pdf

When conducting psychological evaluations, clinicians typically assume that individuals being evaluated are putting forth maximal effort and are not exaggerating or magnifying symptom complaints. Recent research, however, suggests that students undergoing postsecondary- level assessments to document learning difficulties may not always put forth their best effort, and may even be motivated to exaggerate or magnify symptoms. This paper presents evidence indicating that symptom exaggeration in this context is not only possible, but is indistinguishable from valid symptomatology when it occurs. We argue that symptom validity assessment should be included in all higher-education assessments for dyslexia and other specific learning disorders, and suggest some preliminary strategies for detection.

Harrison, A.G., Nichols, E., 2005 A validation of the Dyslexia Adult Screening Test (DAST) in a post-secondary population link to pdf

In Ontario, Canada, there is a demand for psychometrically robust screening tools capable of efficiently identifying students with specific learning disabilities (SLD), such as dyslexia. The present study investigated the ability of the Dyslexia Adult Screening Test (DAST) to discriminate between 117 post-secondary students with carefully diagnosed SLDs and 121 comparison students. Results indicated that the DAST correctly identified only 74% of the students with SLDs as ‘highly at risk’ for dyslexia. Although employing the cutoff for ‘mildly at risk’ correctly identified 85% of the students with SLDs, this also increased the percentage of students with no major history of learning problems identified as ‘at risk’ for dyslexia from 16% to 26%. These findings suggest that the DAST in its present form is limited in its ability to screen for SLDs. Implications for future research are discussed.

Harsgbarger, J.P., 1998 The self-esteem, locus of control and integrated time perspective of college students with learning disabilities link to pdf

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific factors (i.e. self-esteem, locus of control, and integrated time perspective) could be identified which differentiate college students with learning disabilities from their peers who do not have a learning disability. Pre-college students with learning disabilities have been shown to have lower self-esteem (i.e. a lower evaluation of one's self-worth), a more external locus of control (i.e. belief that performance can be attributed to factors outside of personal control), and a poorer integrated time perspective (i.e. more difficulty setting goals, using time efficiently, and having hope) when compared to their non-learning disabled peers. Since these traits have been shown to negatively impact career development, this study sought to determine if this pattern persisted in a sample of college students with learning disabilities. In addition to the examination of the relationship between learning disabilities and self-esteem, locus of control, and integrated time perspective, the relationships of various other factors such as the student's gender, age, and socioeconomic status to self-esteem, locus of control, and integrated time perspective also were investigated. A total of 51 students with learning disabilities and 56 students with no learning disabilities were administered a measure of self-esteem (the Rosenberg ii Self-Esteem Scale), a measure of locus of control (the Multidimensional-Multiattributional Causality Scale), three measures of integrated time perspective (the Hope Scale, the Long-Term Personal Direction Scale, and the Time Utilization Scale), and a personal information sheet. A MANOVA was performed to examine whether any differences existed between students with and without learning disabilities on the variables of self-esteem, locus of control, and integrated time perspective. Results of the study indicated that there were no differences between college students with learning disabilities and college students with no learning disabilities on the variables of self-esteem, locus of control, and integrated time perspective. In addition, there were no significant relationships between age, gender, and socioeconomic status and self-esteem, locus of control, and integrated time perspective.

Hartley, D., 2007 Organizational epistemology, education and social theory link to pdf

Organizational learning or epistemology has emerged in order to manage the creation of knowledge and innovation within contemporary capitalism. Its insights are being applied also to the public sector. Much of the research in organizational learning has drawn upon the discipline of psychology, particularly constructivist theory. Two approaches in organizational epistemology are considered here: Nonaka’s theory of knowledge creation, and Engeström’s expansive learning theory. Notwithstanding the reference to ‘learning’, these approaches have so far had little application to schools, especially at the level of pedagogy. But there are indications that re-culturing, ‘workforce re-modelling’ and inter-agency working are becoming more prominent within the public services in England. In these endeavours, government may come to regard organizational epistemology as an important new procedure in the management of change. Thus far, sociology has had two kinds of ‘relationship’ with organizational epistemology: first, social phenomenology and ethnomethodology have been of practical use; and, second, critical theory objects to the near-absence of a consideration of power and ideology within the discourse of organizational epistemology.

Hatcher, J., Snowling, M.J., Griffiths, Y.M., 2002 Cognitive assessment of dyslexic students in higher education link to pdf

Background. Previous studies have shown that the phonological deficits that characterise dyslexia persist into adulthood. There is a growing number of dyslexic students in higher education for whom sensitive diagnostic tests of their reading and reading related difficulties are required.
Aims. The main aim of this study was to compare the cognitive skills of dyslexic students with those of their non-dyslexic peers, and to ascertain the impact of cognitive difficulties on their study skills. A second aim was to produce guidelines for the assessment of dyslexia in higher education.
Sample. The performance of 23 dyslexic students was compared with that of a comparison group of 50 students from the same university who did not report a history of reading difficulty.
Method. Participants completed standardised tests of IQ, reading, spelling and arithmetic and tests tapping phonological processing, verbal fluency and speed of processing. Their performance on a set of study-related tasks including proof reading and pre´cis writing was also assessed and they completed the Brown ADD scales.
Results. Although dyslexic students did not differ in general cognitive ability from controls, they had deficits in reading and reading related phonological processes. Discriminant function analyses indicated that dyslexia in adulthood can be confirmed with 95% accuracy using only four tests: spelling, nonword reading, digit span and writing speed. Conclusions. The study highlighted the difficulties of dyslexic adults. The persisting difficulties of dyslexic students that affect their study skills need to be recognised by HE institutions so that appropriate support programmes can be put in place.

Havnes, A., 2008 Peer-mediated learning beyond the curriculum link to pdf

In higher education, there is an increasing interest in student interaction in the form of peer learning. In the literature, peer learning is mainly presented as a pedagogical tool used to promote curriculum learning. This article is based on observations of peer learning that expand beyond learning of the curriculum. It particularly addresses the phenomenon of students creating niches for peer interaction and learning. There is an additional type of learning in higher education that can be called peer-mediated learning. In the peer-mediated niches, students learn to become students, and they are free to agree or disagree with the course content in a way that they cannot express in their assignments and examination papers. The article discusses peer-mediated learning from the perspective of activity theory and the notion of the zone of proximal development. It finds that the conventional understanding of the zone of proximal development does not explain peer-mediated learning.

Hay, D.B., 2007 Using concept maps to measure deep, surface and non-learning outcomes link to pdf

This article reports the use of concept mapping to reveal patterns of student learning (or nonlearning) in the course of master's level teaching for research methods. The work was done with a group of 12 postgraduate students, and the concept maps of four individuals produced before and after a single teaching intervention are shown in detail. The data are presented as case studies that document the incidence of deep learning, surface learning and non-learning. These are terms that are widely used in the educational research literature, but most evidence for these learning approaches comes from students' conceptions of learning, not from empirical measures of changes in knowledge structure. Here precise criteria for defining change in terms of deep, surface and nonlearning are developed, and concept mapping is used for assessment of learning quality using these criteria. The results show that deep, surface and non-learning are tangible measures of learning that can be observed directly as a consequence of concept mapping. Concept mapping has considerable utility for tracking change in the course of learning, and has the capacity to distinguish between changes that are meaningful, and those that are not. This is discussed in the wider context of learning, and teaching and research.

Heelan, A., Halligan, P., Quirke, M., 2015 Universal design for learning and its application to clinical placements in health science courses link to pdf

In 2013 Ireland's Association for Higher Education, Access and Disability (AHEAD), in partnership with the School of Nursing University College Dublin (UCD), hosted a summer school for professionals working in the Health Sciences sector who have responsibility for including students with disabilities in the health professions, including clinical placements. The topic of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) was explored and particular emphasis was given to how these principles could translate into practice on clinical placements sites. The summer school used a positive enquiry method to open a detailed dialogue about the inclusion of a diverse range of students in Health Sciences, especially students with disability. The participants comprised 25 academics working across a number of health-related sciences including nursing, medicine, and physiotherapy. While each participant is an expert in their occupational area, they attended the workshop because of an interest in inclusive practice. Using a framework presented by Dr. Joan McGuire from the University of Connecticut, the group explored how Universal Design interacts with the performance standards to be achieved by students in clinical placements. The rich discussion generated a wide variety of examples of the application of UDL. The paper is a summary of the findings of the summer school.

Hegarty, S., 2001 Inclusive education - a case to answer link to pdf

Inclusive education is central to contemporary discourse in special needs education. There are difficulties, however, in allowing the concept to be a key organising principle for educational provision. These dif. culties are set out. It is argued that setting aside the preoccupation with inclusion would result in a clearer focus on core educational values and, in particular, on students’ learning and development.

Heikkila, A., Lonka, K., 2006 Studying in higher education: students' approaches to learning, self-regulation and cognitive strategies link to pdf

The authors looked at aspects of successful and problematic studying in terms of three different research traditions: students’ approaches to learning, self-regulated learning and cognitive strategies. These frameworks have been widely applied when explaining university student learning. However, relations among different traditions have not been sufficiently looked at. In this study the authors explored the relations between learning approaches, regulation of learning and cognitive strategies. The subjects were students at the University of Helsinki who filled in the Task Booklet of Learning and the Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire. Their academic achievement was coded from university archives. It was found that approaches to learning, regulation of learning, and cognitive strategies were related to each other, and further, to study success.

Heiman, T., Precel, K. 2003 Students with Learning Disabilities in Higher Education link to pdf

This study compared 191 college students with learning disabilities (LD) and 190 students without LD in four main areas: academic difficulties, learning strategies, functioning during examinations, and students’ perception of factors that help or impede their academic success. Analysis of the personal data of students with and without LD revealed no significant differences between groups on grade point average, number of courses taken, and family status, but students with LD reported having more difficulties in humanities, social sciences, and foreign language than students without LD. Regarding academic strategies, students with LD devised unusual strategies and preferred additional oral explanations or visual explanations, whereas nondisabled students preferred more written examples. These differences indicated that students without LD used more written techniques than did students with LD. During examinations, the students with LD had difficulty concentrating and were concerned about lack of time. They experienced stress, were nervous, and felt more frustrated, helpless, or uncertain during examinations than students without LD. The implications for college students with LD are discussed.

Hen, M., Goroshit, M., 2014 Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy and GPA: A comparison between students with and without learning disabilities link to pdf

Academic procrastination has been seen as an impediment to students’ academic success. Research findings suggest that it is related to lower levels of self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy and associated with higher levels of anxiety, stress, and illness. Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to assess, regulate, and utilize emotions and has been found to be associated with academic self-efficacy and a variety of better outcomes, including academic performance. Students with learning disabilities (LD) are well acquainted with academic difficulty and maladaptive academic behavior. In comparison to students without LD, they exhibit high levels of learned helplessness, including diminished persistence, lower academic expectations, and negative affect. This study examined the relationships among academic procrastination, EI, and academic performance as mediated by academic self-efficacy in 287 LD and non-LD students. Results indicated that the indirect effect of EI on academic procrastination and GPA was stronger in LD students than in non-LD students. In addition, results indicated that LD students scored lower than non-LD students on both EI and academic self-efficacy and higher on academic procrastination. No difference was found in GPA.

Henderson, L.M., Tsogka, N., Snowling, M.J., 2013 Questioning the benefits that coloured overlays can have for reading in students with and without dyslexia link to pdf

Visual stress (the experience of visual distortions and discomfort during prolonged reading) is frequently identified and alleviated with coloured overlays or lenses. Previous studies have associated visual stress with dyslexia and as a consequence, coloured overlays are widely distributed to children and adults with reading difficulty. However, this practice remains controversial. We investigated whether overlays have advantageous and reliable benefits for reading in undergraduate students with and without dyslexia. Both groups read jumbled text faster with a coloured overlay than without. The dyslexic group did not show greater gains than controls, despite reporting significantly more symptoms of visual stress. However, coloured overlays did not improve reading rate or comprehension of connected text. The improvement in reading speed with an overlay was not reliable and was significantly reduced at retesting for dyslexic students. These results question the value of coloured overlays as a tool for identifying visual stress and as a form of remediation for the reading difficulties associated with dyslexia.

Henderson, P., 2015 Are there delays in reporting dyslexia in university learners? Experiences of university learning support staff link to pdf

The number of students entering higher education in the UK has increased over the last few years due to the previous Labour Government directives to widen participation to a range of socially disadvantaged and/or underrepresented groups. Dyslexic students form the largest single group of minority students currently entering higher education. However, there are ongoing challenges in identifying and supporting dyslexic students as there no obligation for students to report specific learning needs before or after they enter higher education. In order to cast more light on this ongoing issue, a small-scale educational research study was undertaken in December 2012 to investigate whether there may be delays in the reporting of dyslexia in learners once they commence higher educational study. The day-to-day working experiences of four support staff based at a learning services department in one UK university were explored. Methodology involved adopting a qualitative exploratory design using digitally recorded semi-structured interviews and a snowball sample. Interview data was analysed using thematic analysis. The key findings of the study indicated that dyslexia was more likely to be reported in the second and third year of a student’s higher educational journey. Further analysis of the study findings indicated a myriad of reasons for delayed or late reporting of dyslexia. Such reasons included maintaining of a non-disabled student identity, financial and/or time constraints or consciously and strategically deciding when to disclose dyslexia to improve final degree classifications. A number of further recommendations are made to enhance inclusive learning and teaching practices.

Henson, R.K., 2001 Understanding internal consistency reliability estimates: A conceptial primer on [Cronbach's] coefficient alpha link to pdf

Although often ignored, reliability is critical when interpreting study effects and test results. Accordingly, this article focuses on the most commonly uysed estimate of reliability, internal consistency coefficients, with emphasis on coefficient alpha. An interpretive framework is provided for applied researchers and others seeking a conceptual understanding of these estimates.

Hilale, D., Alexander, G., 2011 Academic Behavioural Confidence of first-entering humanities university access program students link to pdf

The current study seeks to gain insight into the Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) of firstentering university access program students intending to enroll for the Humanities (HUM) degree. The study adopts a quantitative-descriptive (survey) design. The respondents, 141 HUM university access program students, completed the questionnaires on their own at the same time and the author was present to respond to concerns raised. This measure ensured that respondents did not collude and give responses that were not authentic. Thus, a hundred percent return on the questionnaires was secured. A generally moderate level of academic confidence was discovered. This clearly indicates that these students need a greater and comprehensive support in order to succeed.

Hinshelwood, J., 1896 A case of dyslexia: a peculiar form of word-blindness link to pdf

... The patient, a tailor aged forty-five years, was admitted into the Western Infirmary on March 4th, 1896. He stated that he had always enjoyed good health and had recollection of only one illness in his lifetime-an attack of influenza some years ago. He had drank freely for many years, but during the last twelve months had been very temperate in the use of alcohol. On admission he complained that he had been unable to follow his employment during the last six months because he became stupid, as he expressed it, when he attempted to do anything. The patient not being a very intelligent man it was exceedingly difficult to elicit any precise description from him as to the nature of this mental confusion. He always described himself as getting stupid and his head giving way when he attempted to work. He complained, also, of not being able to read since his illness began, and it was a close analysis of this symptom which revealed the true character of the mental derangement from which he was suffering. On examination with the test-types it was evident that the visual disorder was a very peculiar one. On attempting to read he read the first few words quite correctly and then suddenly came to a stop, saying he could not go on. After reading a little he would begin again with precisely the same result, always coming to a stop after reading a few words. On asking hirn how it was that he could not continue to read he said that although he could see the letters quite distinctly he became stupid-they seemed to lose all meaning for him....

Hitchcock, C., Meyer, A., Rose, D., Jackson, R., 2002 Providing new access to the general curriculum: Universal Design for Learning link to pdf

What does it mean for special education students to have access to the general curriculum—especially those who have formerly been limited to special education curriculums? How can students effectively participate and make progress in the general curriculum? What new tools, methods, and approaches are needed—and are being implemented? In our view, the answers to these questions depend on changes that we must make in the general curriculum to provide such access and participation. In so doing, we will create a curriculum that is better not just for students with disabilities but for all students. This article examines what we mean by access, participation, and progress in the general education curriculum and suggests a new framework for curriculum reform that holds promise for students with disabilities, in particular, and raises countless possibilities for all students. The article presents the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) as a framework for curriculum reform that takes advantage of new media and new technologies for learning,

Ho, A., 2004 To be labelled, or not to be labelled: that is the question link to pdf

• ‘Learning disability’ label establishes accommodation eligibility and civil rights protection but provides an excuse for school officials and legislators to adopt a medical model of learning disabilities and ignore other problems in the educational and social systems.
• A commitment to inclusion and equality requires an acknowledgement of various categorization problems, and a realization that various contexts may contribute to people’s different learning patterns.
• Pathologizing learning difference may be unnecessary or even counterproductive if we presume that all children learn in their unique ways. It is more productive to design flexible curricula that can accommodate learning diversity.

Honicke, T., Broadbent, J., 2016 The influence of academic self-efficacy on academic performance - a systematic review link to pdf

This review integrates 12 years of research on the relationship between academic selfefficacy and university student's academic performance, and known cognitive and motivationalvariables that explain this relationship. Previous reviews report moderate correlationsbetween these variables, but few discuss mediating and moderating factors thatimpact this relationship. Systematic searches were conducted in April 2015 of psychological,educational, and relevant online databases for studies investigating academic selfefficacyand performance in university populations published between September 2003and April 2015. Fifty-nine papers were eligible. Academic self-efficacy moderately correlatedwith academic performance. Several mediating and moderating factors were identified,including effort regulation, deep processing strategies and goal orientations. Giventhe paucity of longitudinal studies identified in this review, further research into howthese variables relate over time is necessary in order to establish causality and uncover thecomplex interaction between academic self-efficacy, performance, and motivational andcognitive variables that impact it.

Hornby, G., 2015 Inclusive special education: development of a new theory for the education of children with special educational needs and disabilities link to pdf

Inclusive education and special education are based on different philosophies and provide alternative views of education for children with special educational needs and disabilities. They are increasingly regarded as diametrically opposed in their approaches. This article presents a theory of inclusive special education that comprises a synthesis of the philosophy, values and practices of inclusive education with the interventions, strategies and procedures of special education. Development of inclusive special education aims to provide a vision and guidelines for policies, procedures and teaching strategies that will facilitate the provision of effective education for all children with special educational needs and disabilities.

Hornstra, L., Denessen, E., Bakker, J., van den Burgh, L., Voeten, M., 2010 Teacher attitudes toward dyslexia: Effects on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia link to pdf

The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an explicit, self-report measure. Achievement scores for 307 students were also obtained. Implicit teacher attitudes toward dyslexia related to teacher ratings of student achievement on a writing task and also to student achievement on standardized tests of spelling but not math for those students with dyslexia. Self-reported attitudes of the teachers toward dyslexia did not relate to any of the outcome measures. Neither the implicit nor the explicit measures of teacher attitudes related to teacher expectations. The results show implicit attitude measures to be a more valuable predictor of the achievement of students with dyslexia than explicit, self-report attitude measures.

Humphrey, N., Mullins, P.M., 2002 Personal constructs and attribution for academic success and failure in dyslexia link to pdf

... explores the relationship between dyslexia and the ways in which pupils perceive themselves as learners. Making extensive links with other research the authors conclude by suggesting that 'the problems that children with dyslexia encounter have negative consequences for their self-evelopment' [and] also propose that while further research is needed, we already know enough about how to make schools more 'dyslexia friendly' to begin to tackle these difficulties at an early stage in children's education

Humphrey, N., 2003 Facilitating a positive sense of self in pupils with dyslexia: the role of teachers and peers link to pdf

This article focusesonthe changes inthe educational environment for children with dyslexia which could help them to dvelop a positive sense of self. The importance of the role of teachers and peers in this respect is discussed and some key teacher and peer behaviours are suggested for facilitating positive self-esteem.

Humphrey, N., 2002 Teacher and pupil ratings of self-esteem in developmental dyslexia link to pdf

... he explores the relationships between dyslexia and self-esteem in pupils. Data was gathered using both teacher rating scales and pupil self-reporting. He compares results from a group of pupils with dyslexia in mainstream settings; a group attending units for pupils with specific learning difficuilties; and a control group.

Hutchison, M.A., Follman, D.K., Sumpter, M., Bodner, G.M., 2006 Factors influencing the self-efficacy beliefs of first-year engineering students link to pdf

A survey incorporating quaíitativc measures of student selfefFicacy beliefs was administered to 1,387 first-year engineering students enrolled in ENGR 106, Engineering Problem-Solving and Computer Tools, at Purdue University. The survey was designed to identify factors related to students' self-efficacy beliefs, their beliefs about their capabilities to perform the tasks necessary to achieve a desired outcome. Open-ended questions prompted students to list factors affecting their confidence in their ability to succeed in the course. Students were then asked to rank these factors based on the degree to which their self-efficacy beliefs were influenced. Gender trends emerged in student responses to factors that affect confidence in success. These trends are discussed in light of the categories identified by efficacy theorists as sources of self-efficacy beliefs. The results presented here provide a usefiil look at the first-year engineering experiences that influence students' efficacy beliefs, an important consideration in explidning student achievement, persistence, and interest.

Jacklin, A., Robinson, C., O'Meara, L., Harris, A., 2007 Improving the experiences of disabled students in higher education link to pdf

Background Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are becoming progressively more engaged with processes of inclusion as the increasingly diverse student body has begun to challenge more taken-for-granted approaches to ways of working in higher education (HE). The Disability Discrimination Act, Part IV and more recently the Disability Equality Duty have impacted on HE, both in terms of strategic planning to ensure compliance, as well as in some cases, redefining how provision may be organised to better meet the needs of students. Within this context, concerns about the student experience have also become more prominent. Questions surround support for disabled students as well as more generally for the wider student body, and the potential exists to think strategically about more inclusive policies and practices. Aims In this project we explored some of the processes of becoming and being a disabled student, focusing on the social construction of student identity and the effects of this on the student experience. Our approach was the social model of disability which stresses the difference between individual impairment and the disabling barriers faced by persons with impairments. Within the context of one HEI, the main aims of the project were to: explore the educational and social experiences of disabled students; identify ways in which their experiences may be improved; examine how useful the category 'disabled student' is as a basis for targeting support. Methods The project was composed of three strands. Strand 1 explored the educational and social profiles of five entry cohorts, analysed in relation to demographic features. Strand 2 focused on student perspectives of their social and learning experiences, through a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews. It also included a focus on the perspectives of late-declaring and non-declaring disabled students and students new to the HEI. Strand 3 involved disabled students as co-researchers, both data gathering and in dissemination. Project period: August 2005 - November 2006.

Jackson, N., 2004 Developing the concept of metalearning link to pdf

The idea of metalearning was originally used by John Biggs (1985) to describe the state of ‘being aware of and taking control of one’s own learning’. This paper explores the concept through collaborative enquiry involving researchers and higher education teachers. An evolved conception is proposed in which metalearning is a subconcept within metacognition and self-regulation. It is perceived as a sort of creativity that is best displayed by proactive self-regulators for whom deliberate self-regulated learning is a way of life. This conception is consistent with the ‘awareness’ and ‘taking control of’ elements of Biggs’ original definition. The utility of the concept is in helping people to connect thinking about their own learning (metacognition and their wider imagination) to actions and behaviours that engage them in learning strategically.

Jamieson, S., 2004 Likert scales: how to (ab)use them link to pdf

Dipping my toe into the water of educational research, I have recently used Likert-type rating scales to measure student views on various educational interventions. Likert scales are commonly used to measure attitude, providing _a range of responses to a given question or statement_.1 Typically, there are 5 categories of response, from (for example) 1 ¼ strongly disagree to 5 ¼ strongly agree, although there are arguments in favour of scales with 7 or with an even number of response categories.

Jeffries, S., Everatt, J., 2004 Working memory: Its role in dyslexia and other specific learning difficulties link to pdf

This paper reports a study contrasting dyslexic children against a control group of children without special educational needs (SEN) and a group with varied SENs. Children’s abilities were compared on tasks assessing phonological processing, visuo-spatial/motor coordination and executive/inhibitory functioning; being targeted for assessment based on theoretical proposals related to the working memory model. Primary and secondary school level children were tested: 21 assessed as dyslexic with no comorbid difficulties, 26 children assessed with difficulties including dyspraxia, emotional/behavioural problems and attention deficits, 40 children with no known education-related deficits were controls. Results indicated both SEN groups performed worse than controls on working memory phonological loop measures. However, SEN groups could only be differentiated on phonological awareness measures: the dyslexics showing lower scores. Dyslexics performed as well as controls on working memory visuo-spatial scratch pad measures and one of two additional visual–motor coordination tasks, whereas the performance of the other SEN children was lowest on the majority of these measures. Central executive and interference measures engendered mixed performances, both SEN groups showing evidence of deficits in one or more of these areas of functioning, although, of the two SEN groups, the dyslexics seem to have performed the worse when digit name processing was required.

Jelfs, A., Richardson, T.E., 2010 Perceptions of academic quality and approaches to studying among disabled and non-disabled students in distance education link to pdf

There is little systematic evidence on the experience of disabled students in higher education. In this study, equal numbers of disabled and nondisabled students taking courses with the UK Open University were surveyed with regard to their approaches to studying and perceptions of the academic quality of their courses. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties, students with mental health difficulties and students with fatigue were more likely to exhibit a surface approach, and less likely to exhibit organised studying, than were nondisabled students. In the first two groups, this was associated with lower ratings of the quality of their courses. Nevertheless, the differences were not large, either in absolute terms or in the proportion of variance in the students’ scores that they explained. The impact of disability on students’ perceptions of the academic quality of their courses and on their approaches to studying appears to be relatively slight.

Jhangiani, R.S., Troisi, J.D., Fleck, B., Legg, A.M., Hussey, H.D., (eds - e-Book) 2015 A compendium of scales for use in the scholarship of teaching and learning link to pdf
Extract from the Introduction:
The scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) has increased in both prevalence and profile during the past decade (Bishop-Clark & Dietz-Uhler, 2012; Gurung & Landrum, 2015; Gurung & Wilson, 2013). Over this time, SoTL work has become more methodologically rigorous and more accepted by university administrators as valid and valuable products of scholarship. Given its strong empirical foundation and long history of basic research such as cognitive, learning, behavioral, and social, psychology as a discipline is especially well-positioned to lead investigations into practices that enhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning. With a stated mission to “promote excellence in the teaching and learning of psychology,” the Society for the Teaching of Psychology (STP) has been at the forefront of this movement within our discipline. STP has supported SoTL by awarding grants (e.g., the SoTL grant), developing demonstrably effective teaching resources (e.g., instructional resource awards), organizing conferences and meetings (e.g., the Annual Conference on Teaching), and effectively disseminating research findings (e.g., publication in its flagship journal Teaching of Psychology). This e-book is intended to further support these efforts by providing a valuable resource that facilitates the location, evaluation, selection, and (where necessary) development of psychometrically sound scales for the many traditional areas of focus within SoTL. In doing so, this compendium will achieve the broader goal of raising the scientific standards of evidencebased teaching and learning.
Jodrell, D., 2010 Social identity and self-efficacy concern for disability labels link to pdf

Introduction: Educational policy in the UK has moved towards inclusion (Lindsay, 2003), resulting in debate over the use of disability labels (Lauchlan & Boyle, 2007). Labelling influences social-identity (Olney & Brockelman, 2003), this paper suggests social-identity influences self-efficacy and, therefore, academic performance (Zimmerman, 1996, 2001).
Aims: To investigate if past performance of in-group members will influence students’ self-efficacy beliefs.
Method: A convenience sample of 30 undergraduates was recruited, half of whom were dyslexic. Participants were split equally into three conditions and informed of either high-dyslexic or high nondyslexic performance or were kept naive of past performance. Scores for efficacy beliefs were taken and analysed for differences between conditions.
Results: For dyslexic participants both the high-dyslexic and high non-dyslexic performance conditions resulted in significantly differing self-efficacy scores when compared to dyslexic participants in the control group. Scores also significantly differed for non-dyslexic participants in the high-dyslexic performance compared to non-dyslexic controls, for one self-efficacy scale, however, no significant differences were found between non-dyslexic’s in the control condition and those in the high non-dyslexic performance condition.
Conclusions: While, dyslexic students showed predicted differences in efficacy scores relative to in-group member’s performance. For non-dyslexic students, a significant difference was only found for those in the high-dyslexic performance condition. Therefore, results suggest that dyslexic students’ self-efficacy was influenced by social identity. For non-dyslexics this was not the case. The small number of participant’s percondition and the impact of stereotyping are suggested as mitigating predicted significant differences in selfefficacy scores for non-dyslexics. The effect of past dyslexic performance on dyslexic self-efficacy scores is described in relation to disability labels. Due to alternative theoretical explications for data trends found, and methodological limitations the study’s principal conclusion is the need to expand on findings demonstrated.

Jordan, J-A., McGladdery, G., Dyer, K., 2014 Dyslexia in Higher Education: Implications for maths anxiety, statistics anxiety and psychological well-being link to pdf

This study examined levels of mathematics and statistics anxiety, as well as general mental health amongst undergraduate students with dyslexia (n = 28) and those without dyslexia (n = 71). Students with dyslexia had higher levels of mathematics anxiety relative to those without dyslexia, while statistics anxiety and general mental health were comparable for both reading ability groups. In terms of coping strategies, undergraduates with dyslexia tended to use planning-based strategies and seek instrumental support more frequently than those without dyslexia. Higher mathematics anxiety was associated with having a dyslexia diagnosis, as well as greater levels of worrying, denial, seeking instrumental support and less use of the positive reinterpretation coping strategy. By contrast, statistics anxiety was not predicted by dyslexia diagnosis, but was instead predicted by overall worrying and the use of denial and emotion focused coping strategies. The results suggest that disability practitioners should be aware that university students with dyslexia are at risk of high mathematics anxiety. Additionally, effective anxiety reduction strategies such as positive reframing and thought challenging would form a useful addition to the support package delivered to many students with dyslexia.

Josefowitz, N., Myran, D., 2005 Towards a person-centred cognitive behaviour therapy link to pdf

Person-centred therapy was developed by Carl Rogers [ Journal of Consulting Psychology 21, 97–103 (1957); On becoming a person, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (1961)] and focuses on the importance of the therapeutic relationship for effective therapy. Rogers identified three necessary and sufficient conditions that are related to a positive outcome in therapy. These are: acceptance of the client, accurate empathy and congruence on the therapist’s part. The present paper considers the definitions of the three core conditions and examines ways in which interventions, developed by cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), can be informed by these conditions, as identified by Rogers and his followers. We argue that CBT, while using different interventions than those traditionally used by person-centred therapists, can be practiced as a highly empathic, person-centred form of therapy.

Judge, T.A., Erez, A., Bono, J.E., Thoresen, C.J. 2002 Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct? link to pdf

The authors present results of 4 studies that seek to determine the discriminant and incremental validity of the 3 most widely studied traits in psychology—self-esteem, neuroticism, and locus of control—along with a 4th, closely related trait— generalized self-efficacy. Meta-analytic results indicated that measures of the 4 traits were strongly related. Results also demonstrated that a single factor explained the relationships among measures of the 4 traits. The 4 trait measures display relatively poor discriminant validity, and each accounted for little incremental variance in predicting external criteria relative to the higher order construct. In light of these results, the authors suggest that measures purporting to assess self-esteem, locus of control, neuroticism, and generalized self-efficacy may be markers of the same higher order concept.

Jungert, T., Hessier, H., Traff, U., 2014 Contrasting two models of academic self-efficacy - domain-specific versus cross-domain - in children receiving and not receiving special instruction in mathematics link to pdf

In social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is domain-specific. An alternative model, the cross-domain influence model, would predict that self-efficacy beliefs in one domain might influence performance in other domains. Research has also found that children who receive special instruction are not good at estimating their performance. The aim was to test two models of how self-efficacy beliefs influence achievement, and to contrast children receiving special instruction in mathematics with normally-achieving children. The participants were 73 fifth-grade children who receive special instruction and 70 children who do not receive any special instruction. In year four and five, the children's skills in mathematics and reading were assessed by national curriculum tests, and in their fifth year, self-efficacy in mathematics and reading were measured. Structural equation modeling showed that in domains where children do not receive special instruction in mathematics, self-efficacy is a mediating variable between earlier and later achievement in the same domain. Achievement in mathematics was not mediated by self-efficacy in mathematics for children who receive special instruction. For normal achieving children, earlier achievement in the language domain had an influence on later self-efficacy in the mathematics domain, and self-efficacy beliefs in different domains were correlated. Self-efficacy is mostly domain specific, but may play a different role in academic performance depending on whether children receive special instruction. The results of the present study provided some support of the Cross-Domain Influence Model for normal achieving children.

Kavanagh, D.J., Bower, G.H., 1985 Mood and self-efficacy: impact of joy and sadness on perceived capabilities link to pdf

We examined the impact of happy and sad moods on efficacy judgments concerning a variety of activities. The mood was induced by having hypnotized subjects recall and revive their feelings about a romantic success or failure. Changes in efficacy that these memories induced were not restricted to the romantic domain but were also seen on interpersonal, athletic, and other activities remote from romance. The results suggested that emotional states have widespread impact on judgments by making mood-congruent thoughts more available. Implications for self-efficacy theory and practical applications are discussed.

Keinhuis, M., Chester, A., Wilson, P., Elgar, K., 2011 Implementing an interteaching model to increase student engagement - [using academic behavioural confidence] link to pdf

The Interteaching model is an innovative new approach to learning and teaching designed to support student engagement and greater depth of learning. The standard Interteaching model includes guided independent learning, student-paced small group tutorial discussion, and brief lectures that are developed in response to student feedback. A distinctive feature of the model is that tutorials precede lectures as a way of consolidating the concepts on which students need most direction (Boyce & Hineline 2002). Support for Interteaching as an effective Learning and Teaching (L&T) model comes from both descriptive and experimental studies (Saville, Zinn, & Elliott 2005; Saville et al 2006).

Keller, J.M., Goldman, J.A., Sutterer, J.R., 1978 Locus of Control in relation to academic attitudes and performance in personalized system of instruction courses link to pdf

This study examined locus of control in relation to academic attitudes versus study habits, rate of progress, and final achievement based on differential predictions derived from social learning theory and attribution theory. Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (I-E) and the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes were administered to 138 undergraduate students in a personalized system of instruction course in introductory psychology. The results of multiple regression analyses indicated that the I-E scale is related (p < .05) only to academic attitudes and that study habits are related to both performance measures. It was inferred that attribution theory provides the best explanation for these results.

Kember, D., Leung, D.Y.P., 2006 Characterizing ateaching and learning environment conducive to making demands on students while not making their workload excessive link to pdf

A qualitative study of perception of workload found that it was very weakly related to hours of work. The complex construct was better characterised as being influenced by a broadly conceived teaching and learning environment. It appeared to be possible to encourage students to perform a great deal of high-quality work, without complaining about excessive workload, by attention to this environment. This hypothesis was tested quantitatively with structural equation modelling with a sample of 3320 undergraduate students at a university in Hong Kong. The hypothesised model had nine factors of the teaching and learning environment grouped under three higher-order latent variables: teaching, teacher–student relationships and student–student relationships which have influences on perceived workload. The model showed a good fit to the data, confirming the hypothesis that attention to the teaching and learning environment can spur students to work hard without feeling overly stressed. The questionnaire could be used as a diagnostic tool to discover which aspects of the environment need attention.

Kerr, H., 2003 Learned helplessness and dyslexia: a carts and horses issue? link to pdf

A survery into attitudes towards and beliefs about dyslexia among Adult Base Education (ABE) teachers and providers is reported. This research appears to reveal doubt, uncertainty and confusion about dyslexia and considerable misgivings as a consequence. A marked degree of learned helplessness was apparently induced in respondents when faced with a student with a diagnosis of dyslexia. Tuition was greatly simplified and expectations lowered. Attribution theory and learned helplessness are discussed in the context of ABE. It is argued that a diagnosis of dyslexia may be a maladaptive attribution and so inevitably induce learned helplessness. Increased scepticism towards dyslexia in ABE is recommended.

Kinchin, I.M., Lygo-Baker, S., Hay, D.B., 2008 Universities as centres of non-learning link to pdf

It has been claimed that one of the overriding purposes of the scholarship of teaching movement is to make more visible what teachers do to make learning happen. The authors of this article are critical of the literature on the scholarship of teaching for not having made more progress towards this aim. They support these assertions through analysis of recent literature and consultation with academics teaching in a variety of disciplines. The weakness in the prior literature is addressed by a proposal to augment a model of scholarship of teaching by providing a tool that can be used by teachers to make explicit the central concept of pedagogic resonance – the bridge between teacher knowledge and student learning. This bridge, spanning the divide between teacher and student, can be made visible through the application of mapping techniques. However, the application of the concept mapping methodology reveals a strategic learning cycle in which teachers and students appear to be complicit in the avoidance of engagement with the discourse of the discipline. The perceived utility of this strategic cycle may subvert any attempt to develop scholarship in university teaching, and may lead consistently to a non-learning outcome for students and teachers – a phenomenon that has previously been largely ignored.

Kirsch, I., 1982 Efficacy expectations or response predictions: the meaning of efficacy reatings as a function of task characteristics link to pdf

Fifty snake-fearful subjects completed efficacy questionnaires corresponding to a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT) and efficacy questionnaires for an unrelated skill task, including items asking whether they were willing to attempt the most difficult task on each questionnaire. Subjects were also asked to indicate expected anxiety ratings for each of the BAT tasks. Finally, in a structured interview, they were asked whether they would be able to accomplish these tasks if various levels of incentive were available. In the absence of incentives, most subjects indicated willingness to attempt the most difficult skill task, but not the most difficult BAT task. Although incentives had little effect on skill-task efficacy judgments, all subjects indicated that they would be able to accomplish the most difficult BAT task if sufficient incentives were available. The level of incentive required to produce altered efficacy ratings was significantly related to level of anticipated anxiety. The results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that phobic subjects have high efficacy expectations for approach tasks, and that efficacy questionnaires for these tasks reveal their willingness to perform behaviors for. which they expect anxiety and other forms of negatively valued reinforcement.

Kiziewicz, M., Biggs, I., 2007 CASCADE - creativity across science, art, dyslexia, education [Book] link to pdf

In 2001 a conference called 'Cascade – creativity across science, art, dyslexia, education' was held at the University of Bath. The aim of the conference was to disseminate the outcomes of the Dyslexia strand of the WEBB accessibility project which had been a three year collaborative project funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) under the first strand of disability funding that was aimed at developing access for students with disabilities to Higher Education. The three Universities participating were the Universities of the West of England, Bristol and Bath. The collaborative project disseminated and explored through the event was called the 3 I's of Dyslexia: Identification, Intervention and Institutional issues, and one of the papers collected here is a comparative study of identification assessment methods for dyslexia by Dr Mary Haslum that resulted from the Project.

This three day event aimed to be fully accessible for dyslexia and therefore not all the presentations were in text. There were performance and music events, experiential workshops and an exhibition of painting, sculpture and ceramics. This book cannot fully do justice to the whole sense of the event, however the chapters by Ketaki Kushari Dyson and Andrew Henon aim to represent the exhibition and performance aspects, and some of the papers are accompanied by some examples of the visual art.

Much of the material from the conference was published on the cascade website (www.bath.ac.uk/cascade) but there was insufficient funding at the time to do justice to publishing the papers. It is unusual to find that there is a value in formally publishing these papers six years on, as conference events are traditionally rapidly superceded within research communities. There have been two further strands of HEFCE disability funding since this project completed, the last projects have recently completed and disseminated their work. Disability is now included within Widening Participation and Teaching and Learning agendas in Universities, there has been active representation of disability related issues and the new Disability Discrimination Bill requires the development of Disability Equality Schemes by all public institutions.

It would seem then that all the work towards inclusion for dyslexia is all done and these papers could represent a historical perspective into the exclusion of dyslexia in the past. Unfortunately this is not the case. One of the things that made this conference different was that this conference included dyslexic people speaking for themselves. Further, they were dyslexic academics who represented a variety of disciplines and who questioned whether the creativity associated with dyslexia should be confined to art education or whether the visual spatial skills dyslexic people often have, are used and indeed essential within all subject areas. Iain Biggs and Guy Saunders moved beyond creativity to models of imagination that are a prerequisite and central to the creative education process. Ultimately this was a conference celebrating the strengths of dyslexia and seeking to find ways to include these strengths within the academic community.

Klassen, R., 2002 A question of calibration: A review of the self-efficacy beliefs of students with learning disabilities link to pdf

The purpose of this article is to review the literature investigating the self-efficacy beliefs of students with learning disabilities. To begin, motivational and metacognitive difficulties of students with LD are briefly discussed, followed by a synopsis of Bandura’s self-efficacy theory, with special attention paid to the issue of calibration. From the literature search, twenty-two studies met the criteria of (a) use of a measure of self-efficacy, and (b) inclusion of a sample of students identified as learning disabled. The resulting body of literature is summarized and analyzed in terms of the nature of the sample, the performance task or domain, the self-efficacy measure used, the research question and outcomes, and the accuracy of calibration between perceived self-efficacy and task outcome. The results from this review suggest that in specific contexts—in the writing performance of students with specific writing difficulties, in particular—students appear to optimistically mis-calibrate their self-efficacy. Some methodological problems found in some of the research, such as “conceptual blurring,” are next discussed. Finally, suggestions are made to improve the accuracy and validity of self-efficacy measurement.

Klassen, R.M., Lynch, S.L., 2007 Self-efficacy from the perspective of adolescents with LD and their specialist teachers link to pdf

This study used qualitative methodology to investigate the self-efficacy beliefs of early adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). We conducted a series of focus group interviews with 28 Grade 8 and 9 students with LD and individual interviews with 7 specialist LD teachers. Content analyses of the student and teacher data resulted in 2 a priori and 3 inductive themes: self-efficacy, calibration and levels of self-efficacy, students' self-awareness, attributions for failure, and problems and solutions. The students viewed themselves as low in self-efficacy and generally accurate in the calibration of their efficacy and performance, whereas the teachers viewed the students as overconfident about academic tasks. In contrast to the teachers, the students viewed verbal persuasion as a valued source of self-efficacy. Students attributed their failures to lack of effort, whereas their teachers attributed student failure to uncontrollable deficits. Problems and solutions related to student motivation were discussed from student and teacher perspectives.

Klassen, R., 2008 The optimistic self-efficacy beliefs of students with learning disabilities link to pdf

This article reviews three studies that provide evidence that students with learning disabilities (LD) display optimistic academic self-beliefs, even in the face of relatively poor academic performance. In the first study, a quantitative approach was used to explore the spelling and writing self-efficacy of 133 adolescents with and without LD. Students with LD over-estimated their performance in spelling and writing. In the second study, a series of interviews with 28 adolescents with LD and 7 specialist LD teachers revealed that the students viewed themselves as low in academic optimism, whereas the teachers viewed the students as overly optimistic about academic tasks. A third study explored the academic motivation and procrastination of 208 undergraduates with and without LD, and found students with LD had moderate levels of optimism about academic tasks, but lower levels of optimism about self-regulatory capabilities. The paper concludes with a presentation of common and emergent themes from the three studies, and offers recommendations for practitioners and avenues for future research.

Klassen, R., Krawchuk, L.L., Rajani, S., 2007 Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination link to pdf

This article reports two studies exploring the academic procrastination of 456 undergraduates. Study 1 explores the relationships among academic procrastination, self-regulation, academic self-efficacy, self-esteem, and self-efficacy for self-regulation. Results reveal that although other self-variables are related to procrastination, self-efficacy for self-regulation is most predictive of procrastination tendencies. Study 2 examines academic and motivation characteristics of ‘‘negative procrastinators,’’ the undergraduates who are most adversely influenced by procrastination. The 25% of 195 participants in Study 2 who were classified as negative procrastinators had significantly lower GPAs, higher levels of daily and task procrastination, lower predicted and actual class grades, and lower self-efficacy for self-regulation. After controlling for GPA, daily procrastination and selfefficacy for self-regulation significantly predicted the negative impact of procrastination. The article concludes with a discussion of the importance that self-efficacy for self-regulation holds for procrastination research, and with suggestions for practitioners who work with students who are adversely affected by procrastination.

Klassen, R., Krawchuk, L.L., Lynch, S.L., Rajani, S., 2008 Procrastination and motivation of undergraduates with learning disabilities: a mixed methods enquiry link to pdf
The purpose of thismixed-methods article was to report two studies exploring the relationships between academic procrastination and motivation in 208 undergraduates with (n = 101) and without (n = 107) learning disabilities (LD). In Study 1, the results from self-report surveys found that individuals with LD reported significantly higher levels of procrastination, coupled with lower levels of metacognitive self-regulation and self-efficacy for self-regulation than those without LD. Procrastination was most strongly (inversely) related to self-efficacy for self-regulation for both groups, and the set of motivation variables reliably predicted group membership with regard to LD status. In Study 2, individual interviews with 12 students with LD resulted in five themes: LD-related problems, self-beliefs and procrastination, outcomes of procrastination, antecedents of procrastination, and support systems. The article concludes with an integration of quantitative and qualitative results, with attention paid to implications for service providers working with undergraduates with LD.
Klassen, R., Tan, C.X., Ang, R.P., Lay, S.E., Wong, I.Y.F., Huan, V.S., Wan, H.C., 2008 Correlates of academic procrastination and students' grade goals link to pdf

This study examined correlates of academic procrastination and students’ grade goals in a sample of 226 undergraduates from Singapore. Findings indicated that self-efficacy for self-regulated learning was significantly and negatively related to procrastination. High self-efficacy for self-regulated learning also predicted students’ expectations of doing well and low self-efficacy for self-regulated learning predicted students’ expectations of not doing well academically. Additionally, helpseeking predicted students’ expectations of doing well academically while academic stress predicted students’ expectations of not doing well academically. Implications for education and educational practice were discussed.

Klassen, R., Lynch, S.L., 2007 Self-efficacy from the perspective of adolescents with LD and their specialist teachers link to pdf

This study used qualitative methodology to investigate the self-efficacy beliefs of early adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). We conducted a series of focus group interviews with 28 Grade 8 and 9 students with LD and individual interviews with 7 specialist LD teachers. Content analyses of the student and teacher data resulted in 2 a priori and 3 inductive themes: self-efficacy, calibration and levels of self-efficacy, students' self-awareness, attributions for failure, and problems and solutions. The students viewed themselves as low in self-efficacy and generally accurate in the calibration of their efficacy and performance, whereas the teachers viewed the students as overconfident about academic tasks. In contrast to the teachers, the students viewed verbal persuasion as a valued source of selfefficacy. Students attributed their failures to lack of effort, whereas their teachers attributed student failure to uncontrollable deficits. Problems and solutions related to student motivation were discussed from student and teacher perspectives.

Klotz,J., 2004 Sociocultural theory of intellectual disability: moving beyond labelling and social constructivist perspectives link to pdf

This paper outlines the development of the sociocultural study of people with an intellectual disability, focusing in particular on the pioneering work of Robert Edgerton, Robert Bogdan and Steven Taylor, David Goode and John Gleason.1 As part of this analysis, I shall critically assess the contributions and limitations of these authors. I argue that the parameters of the debate have tended to become too rigid. The sociocultural study of intellectual disability has mostly focused on the experiences of people with mild intellectual disabilities, extrapolating from these experiences conclusions about the nature of intellectual disability in general, while the experiences and life worlds of those whose impairments are severe, profound, and often multiple, are often ignored. However, the portrayal and analysis of such people’s lives are essential for our greater understanding and appreciation of intellectual disability, and of human difference in all its diverse manifestations. It is also essential for understanding, accepting and respecting people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities, and recognizing that such people are already living socially meaningfully lives as they are, despite not conforming to the dominant and socially prescribed norms and expectations of meaningful action and behaviour.2 The methodological and theoretical tools that are required to engage with and interpret such lives, however, are profoundly different to those used by the majority of sociocultural theorists in the field, as shall be discussed below.

Klemes, J., Epstein, A., Zuker, M., Grinberg, N., Illovitch, T., 2006 An assistive computerized learning environment for distance learning students with learning disabilities link to pdf

The current study examines how a computerized learning environment assists students with learning disabilities (LD) enrolled in a distance learning course at the Open University of Israel. The technology provides computer display of the text, synchronized with auditory output and accompanied by additional computerized study skill tools which support learning. Since the technology is not based on language-specific synthetic voice output, it can be operated in any language. The results of the study suggest that the assistive technology tested in this study is highly beneficial to students with LD who are studying from a distance. The prospects of its implementation for students with LD in distance learning academic institutions, at a time when their number in these institutions is increasing, are discussed.

Knudson-Martin, J., 2011 A combined model for understanding motivation link to pdf

To design programs and curricula that engage people in activities requires an understanding of how motivation operates in people’s lives. There are multiple theories of motivation published in many journals and books from different fields of study (e.g., education, psychology, sociology). A substantial investment of time is needed to review this literature – time which professionals often do not have. In this paper, major theories of motivation are reviewed and then integrated into a Combined Model for Understanding Motivation that can be used in the design, implementation and assessment of programs in business, education and other fields. This model gives professionals a way of understanding how motivation operates and that is intuitive and based on research.

Koller, O., Trautwein, U., Ludte, O., Baumert, J., 2006 Self-esteem, academic self-conceptand achievement: How the learning environment moderates the dynamics of self-concept link to pdf

The authors examine the directionality of effects between global self-esteem, domain-specific academic self-concepts, and academic achievement. Special emphasis is placed on learning environments as potential moderators of the direction of these effects. According to the meritocracy principle presented here, so-called bottom-up effects (i.e., self-esteem is influenced by academic self-concept) are more pronounced in meritocratic learning environments than in ego-protective learning environments. This hypothesis was examined using a three-wave cross-lagged panel design with a large sample of 7th graders from East and West Germany, a total of 5,648 students who were tested shortly after German reunification. Reciprocal effects were found between self-esteem, academic self-concept, and academic achievement. In conformance with the meritocracy principle, support for bottom-up effects was stronger in the meritocratic learning environment.

Komarraju, M., Karau, S.J., Schmeck, R.R., 2009 Role of the Big Five personality traits in predicting college students' academic motivation and achievement link to pdf

College students (308 undergraduates) completed the Five Factor Inventory and the Academic Motivations Scale, and reported their college grade point average (GPA). A correlation analysis revealed an interesting pattern of significant relationships. Further, regression analyses indicated that conscientiousness and openness explained 17% of the variance in intrinsic motivation; conscientiousness and extraversion explained 13% of the variance in extrinsic motivation; and conscientiousness and agreeableness explained 11% of the variance in amotivation. Further, four personality traits (conscientiousness, openness, neuroticism, and agreeableness) explained 14% of the variance in GPA; and intrinsic motivation to accomplish things explained 5% of the variance in GPA. Finally, conscientiousness emerged as a partial mediator of the relationship between intrinsic motivation to accomplish and GPA. These results are interpreted within the context of what educators could do to encourage and nurture student motivation and achievement

Komarraju, M., Nadler, D., 2013 Self-efficacy and academic achievement: why do implicit beliefs, goals and effort regulation matter? link to pdf

We examined motivational orientations, cognitive–metacognitive strategies, and resource management in predicting academic achievement. Undergraduates (407) completed the Motivated Strategies Learning Questionnaire, Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale, Achievement Goal Inventory, and self-reported grade point average. A MANCOVA (controlling for sex and age) indicated that low self-efficacy students tended to believe intelligence is innate and unchangeable and high self-efficacy students pursued mastery goals involving challenge and gaining new knowledge as well as performance goals involving good grades and outperforming others. Further, hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy, effort regulation, and help-seeking predicted 18% of the variance in GPA. Interestingly, effort regulation partially mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and GPA. Overall, self-efficacious students are able to achieve academically because they monitor and self-regulate their impulses and persist in the face of difficulties. We discuss implications of these findings for educators seeking to strengthen both self-efficacy and effort regulation towards increasing academic achievement.

Kroner, S., Biermann, A., 2007 The relationship between confidence and self-concept - towards a model of response-confidence link to pdf

According to Stankov [Stankov, L. (2000). Complexity, metacognition and fluid intelligence. Intelligence, 28, 121–143.] response confidence in cognitive tests reflects a trait on the boundary of personality and abilities. However, several studies failed in relating confidence scores to other known traits, including self-concept. A model of response confidence is proposed which predicts that confidence judgements do reflect self-concept, but only to the extent that they do not reflect a calibration process based on task-inherent cues. In the current study, 101 students completed various tests of cognitive abilities and skills as well as scales of the SDQ III measuring general academic and problem-solving self-concept. As expected, self-concept predicts a significant proportion of variance in the confidence factor that is over and above the influence of test scores.

Kyung, R.K., Eun, H.S., 2015 The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta analysis link to pdf

Previous findings on the relationship between procrastination and academic performance are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of 33 relevant studies involving a total of 38,529 participants to synthesize these findings. This analysis revealed that procrastination was negatively correlated with academic performance; this relationship was influenced by the choice of measures or indicators. The use of self-report scales interfered with detection of a significant relationship between procrastination and academic performance. The demographic characteristics of participants in individual studies also affected the observed relationship. Implications of this meta-analysis are discussed.

Lackaye, T., Margalit, M., Ziv, O., Ziman, T., 2006 Comparisons of self-efficacy, mood, efort and hope between students with LD and their non-LD-matched peers link to pdf

The goals of this study were to compare self-perceptions of self-efficacy, mood, effort, and hope between 123 adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) and a group of 123 Non-LD peers, who were matched for their level of academic performance and gender, and to explore the relations between measures of self-perception and achievement. The results showed that students with LD reported lower academic self-efficacy and lower social self-efficacy. They also rated their mood as more negative and reported lower levels of hope and less investment of effort in their academic work. At the same time, no significant differences were found for emotional self-efficacy in comparison to the Non-LD peer group. In addition, among students with LD who were successful in their studies, a subgroup continued to report low levels of hope. The results demonstrated that even when the academic performance of students with LD is similar to their Non-LD peers, their specific and global self-perceptions continue to reflect their distress. It is not clear if these results represent past difficulties, day-to-day struggles, and/or future worries. Resilience models are proposed and research limitations are specified.

Ladd, D.A., 2009 Everybody likes Likert: Using a variable interval slider to collect interval level individual options link to pdf

As computers become more pervasive in opinion-based surveys, research is required to update existing survey methodologies with current computer capabilities and to begin extending current survey methods by validating additional computer-enabled functionality. This need is particularly acute in the measurement of constructs representative of individuals, such as personality, since current methods were not developed for analysis of individuals. This study addresses the current gap in theoretical justification for measurement of individuals, and then contributes to the development of new functionality to account for this gap. First, it uses computer simulation to explore the overall impact of two types of errors introduced by the number of scale anchors. Second, it proposes the functionality of a new data collection tool called the “variable-interval slider (VIS),” a tool that allows the researcher to account for these two types of errors.

Lucid Innovations Ltd, 2015 LADS Plus link to pdf

LADS Plus (Lucid Adult Dyslexia Screening – Plus Version) is a computerised test designed to screen for dyslexia in persons of 15 years and older. LADS Plus comprises five assessment modules, which measure:
1) Nonverbal Reasoning
2) Verbal Reasoning
3) Word Recognition (Lexical decoding involving speeded recognition of real words from non-words).1
4) Word Construction (Speeded lexical encoding of non-words from syllables)
5) Working Memory (Backwards digit span)
The last three of these are dyslexia sensitive measures: it is well established in the research literature that all these tasks are difficult for most people with dyslexia. The two reasoning tests have been included in order to increase the accuracy of detection of dyslexia. These also enable the Administrator to reach a rough estimate of the person's intellectual ability, which may be important when making decisions about further action after screening.

LaForge, M., 2005 Applying 'explanatory style' to academic procrastination link to pdf
Procrastination is the tendency to delay or completely avoid responsibilities, decisions, or tasks that need to be done (Haycock, McCarthy, & Skay 1998, Tuckman and Sexton 1989). According to Lay (1986) procrastination means “the putting off of that which is necessary to reach some goal” (p. 475). Solomon and Rothblum (1984) define procrastination as “the act of needlessly delaying tasks to the point of experiencing subjective discomfort” (p.503). Procrastination involves knowing that one is supposed to perform an activity, and perhaps even wanting to do so, yet failing to motivate oneself to perform the activity within the desired or expected time (Senecal, Koestner, & Vallerand 1995). Most people have some implicit theory about why they procrastinate. Burka and Yuen (1982, p.32) noted that those who have serious problems with procrastination generally tend to attribute their difficulties to personality flaws, such as being lazy, undisciplined, or not knowing how to organize their time. Trait procrastinators are thought to engage in dilatory behavior for a diversity of reasons. These include the protection of their self-esteem through self-handicapping, a demonstration of autonomy, the avoidance of aversive tasks, an avoidance of state anxiety, a response to their fear of failure or perfectionist tendencies, and because they lack self-regulation and self-management capabilities (Burka & Yuen 1982, Solomon & Rothblum 1984). Procrastination is, at times, a serious problem. Internal consequences of procrastinatory behavior may include irritation, regret, despair, and self-blame (Burka & Yuen 1983). External consequences can include impaired work and academic progress, strained relationships, and lost opportunities (Burka & Yuen 1983, Carr 2001). Despite these negative effects and a growing request for help by procrastinators in both academic and business environments (Burka & Yuen 1983), procrastination remains a relatively poorly understood phenomenon (Haycock et al. 1998). Researchers who have studied academic procrastination estimate that as many as 95% of American college students purposefully delay beginning or completing tasks and that as many as 70% of college students engage in frequent procrastination (Ellis & Knaus 1977). There is growing evidence that procrastination results in detrimental academic performance, including poor grades and course withdrawal (Semb et al. 1979). Doctoral student procrastination may result in failure to finish dissertations (Haycock et al. 1998). Gallagher, Golin and Kelleher (1992) found that 52% of surveyed students indicated having a moderate to high need for help concerning procrastination, making it the most frequently cited personal concern for which they needed help.
Lancaster, P., 2008 Universal design for learning link to pdf

"Instead of retrofitting curriculum for students via accommodations and modifications, the principles of UDL prompt teachers to design curriculum that is flexible and adaptable to multiple forms of learning and engagement to facilitate the learning of all students."

In the winter of 2000, Dr David Rose and Dr Anne Meyer published an introduction to a special forum of the Journal of Special Education Technology on Universal Design for Learning (UDL). Within the introduction, they provided background information on UDL and describe how these principles can be applied to education. This column contains a summery of the key points made in the original publication...

Lauchlan, F., Boyle, C., 2007 Is the use of labels in special education helpful? link to pdf

In this article we will address the question: is the use of labels in special education helpful? Within this question there are a number of other questions and issues to consider: what is the relationship between labelling and special educational needs? or the relationship between labelling and the allocation of resources?, as well as the more general issue of the positive and negative outcomes of the use of labels. However, one may legitimately ask: what about the key players in the practice of labelling? In other words, while reflecting upon the use of labels by those working in special education, one must also consider if the same use of labels is helpful to parents, teachers, administrators, and most importantly, the children or young people to whom these labels are attached. The article will discuss each of these issues within the context of helpful (or unhelpful) reasons for the use of labels in special education.

Layer, G., 2002 Developing inclusivity link to pdf

A major challenge to securing lifelong learning is the response of universities and their funding bodies. In the UK, the Government has set out a clear commitment to change; this has been reflected in the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) establishing a policy, planning and specific funding strategy with universities having to set out their policies, approaches and targets to widen participation. This is then measured through success in meeting those targets and published performance indicators. Attached to this approach is a funding stream which enables institutions to put into place actions to ensure success. This paper is based upon the work of the HEFCE national co-ordination team for widening participation (Action on Access), which has the responsibility of assisting achievement against the strategy. The paper will explain the HEFCE approach, compare it with a similar and earlier Australian strategy and demonstrate how institutional success is to be measured. There is always a risk that single item approaches become marginalized within a university as being the responsibility of a particular interest group. This development has been in response to Government direction, has the potential to shape and change institutions so that they become more inclusive; but does the policy add up?

Lee, J., Paek, I., 2014 In search of the optimal number of response categories in a rating scale link to pdf

Likert-type rating scales are still the most widely used method when measuring psychoeducational constructs. The present study investigates a long-standing issue of identifying the optimal number of response categories. A special emphasis is given to categorical data, which were generated by the Item Response Theory (IRT) Graded-Response Modeling (GRM). Along with number of categories (from 2 to 6), two scale characteristics of scale length (n = 5, 10, and 20 items) and item discrimination (high/medium/low) were examined. Results of this study show that there was virtually no difference in psychometric properties of the scales using 4, 5, or 6 categories. Most deteriorating change was observed when the number of response categories reduced from 3 to 2 points in all six psychometric measures. Small moderating effects by scale length and item discrimination seem to be present, that is, a slightly larger impact on the psychometric properties by changing the number of response categories in a shorter and/ or highly discriminating scale. This study concludes with the suggestion that a caution should be made if a scale has only 2 response categories but that limitation may be overcome by manipulating other scale features, namely, scale length or item discrimination.

Lefcourt, H.M., von Baeyer, C.L., Ware, E.E., Cox, D.J., 1979 The Multidimensional-Multiattributional Causality Scale: The development of a goal specific locus of control scale link to pdf

The development of goal specific locus of control scales is described along with several validity studies. The scales were designed to assess the locus of control for affiliation and achievement and were constructed from items representing each quadrant of Weiner's locus and stability of causal attribution model. Half the items concern success, and half, failure experiences. In a series of four studies the achievement locus of control scale failed to predict the affiliation-relevant criteria but was related to body movements indicative of discomfort in the one achievement situation that was investigated. Interference and disruptions during the achievement task had a greater unsettling influence upon achievement internals. Affiliation locus of control, on the other hand, allowed for the prediction of self-disclosure when conditions called for disclosure, and was related to the demonstration of listening skills in a dyadic interaction. In each case affiliation internals proved more socially adroit. In addition, affiliation locus of control was related to recalled early life events that had previously been found to be related to more general measures of locus of control.

Lerner, J.W., 1969 Dyslexia or Reading Disability: A thorne by any name link to pdf

Through a review of the literature, diverse definitions of the term "dyslexia" are presented, and the historical development of the term is looked at. Two independent strands of thought development--medical and educational--are revealed. Medical studies have sought for a common behavior pattern of all dyslexic children and for clear-cut evidence of neurological etiology. Conclusive evidence from both a statistical and pathological standpoint is still lacking. Educators tend to reject the theory of neurological dysfunction as a sole cause for reading failure. In contrast, they emphasize the developmental sequence of reading skills and search for the child's break on the developmental reading pattern. They see the diagnosis of dyslexia as lacking operationality in that it does not lead to appropriate teaching strategies. The medically oriented clinician is likely to focus on the disabled child and emphasize individual treatment, while the educator is likely to devote a portion of his time to the developmental reading program of the entire school in seeking preventative measures. The study concludes that a need exists for a pooling of thought and research from both the educational and medical professions.

Lewthwaite, S., 2011 Critical approaches to accessibility for technology-enhanced learning link to pdf

In recent years there has been a push towards accessibility in technologyenhanced learning (TEL) across all levels of education. However, accessibility represents a shifting frontier. As technology evolves, so too do issues of equality and access. Here key developments in accessibility discourse and research are reviewed to demonstrate the value of attending to accessibility’s cutting edge in mainstream TEL practice. The term ‘accessibility’ is broadly used to describe the degree to which a service or product gives learners the ‘ability to access’ functionality, services or materials. Web accessibility is often deemed particularly relevant for disabled learners who may use assistive technologies to negotiate digital spaces. In this sense, Seale (2006, 28) observes that ‘accessibility’ implies two essential aspects:
● Access by any technology
● Access in any environment or location
In the UK and elsewhere, accessible practices answer moral, pedagogic and legal imperatives for ‘reasonable adjustment’ to the requirements of all learners. This has mobilised a wave of accessibility auditing of the digital and built environment. In the UK, disabled people have only had explicit legal rights in education since 2002, when the Disability Discrimination Act (Part IV) came into force. Simultaneously, ambitions for an information economy have manifested in government strategies to embed technology in the seminar and classroom (e.g., HEFCE 2005). Taken together, these policy moves have resulted in greater diversity in higher education and a more complex digital landscape.

Lin, Y-G., McKeachie, W.J., Kim, Y.C., 2002 College student intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivation and learning link to pdf

How do extrinsic and intrinsic motives affect learning? We predicted that they would not be additive but rather that there would be interactive or curvilinear effects. Extrinsic and intrinsic goal orientation scales were administered to 13 classes—six psychology classes (two in Korea), three biology classes, three English classes, and one sociology class in a liberal arts college, a comprehensive university, and a community college. As predicted, students in the mid-third of the distribution in motivation for grades (extrinsic) who were high in intrinsic motivation achieved better grades than students with higher or lower extrinsic motivation.

Lisle, K., Wade, J., 2014 Does the presence of a learning disability elicit a stigmatization? link to pdf

Bias is a popular topic in psychological research. It can encompass behavior (discrimination), attitude (prejudice), and cognition (stereotyping) [1,2,3]. Bias shown through behavior (discrimination) is arguably the most detrimental of these three components. The Dictionary [4] defines discrimination as the act, practice, or instance of discerning categorically rather than individually. It defines racial discrimination as prejudiced or prejudicial outlook, action, or treatment of another individual or group. Many groups of people are affected by bias. Society most commonly identifies race, gender, and religious affiliation as factors that cause groups to receive considerable bias. In order to understand the prevalence and significance of a bias towards a particular group, it is essential to examine the root of the problem, which is determined by attitude (prejudice) and cognition (stereotyping). Through many avenues, including lack of contact, negative experiences and lack of education, attitudes develop into the stigmatization of particular groups [5].Stigmatization occurs when a negative attitude is adopted with regard to a group in general as opposed to basing one's judgments on the specific characteristics of individuals [6]. Understanding the extent of these beliefs in our society could help determine how often these beliefs develop into discriminatory behaviors. In particular, this research examines the group identified as learning disabled (LD) and how they are affected by bias.

Lizzio, A., Wilson, K., 2006 Enhancing the effectiveness of self-managed learning groups: understanding students' choices and concerns link to pdf

Self-managed learning groups are regularly used in higher education. However, there is little direct evidence as to strategies that can enhance their efficacy, or the factors that influence students’ engagement with the process of self-management. If students are expected to manage their out-ofclass collaborative learning experiences, then educators need a better understanding of the social influences on students’ process choices and use of developmental activities. This study investigated the experiences and perceptions of 152 students who were members of self-managed learning groups. Participation in a formative team-building activity and a greater frequency of meetings were found to predict perceptions of group effectiveness. Students identified a range of factors (related to themes of risk/safety and development/compliance) that influenced their engagement in developmental activities. Findings are discussed in terms of learning frameworks and implications for self-managed learning group design.